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AA001 281 278 


G R A M M A 11 




fis MIL iL LeiseiiiB 

M. Z. B. S. V ; C. M. J. R. G. S. A. ^-c, cjr. 






The Honorable 

if. ^ 






Wlion the author of the present work first arrived in 
China, he liad great difficulties in (j^ctting a teaclier who 
would condescend to speak to li^m as he would do to liis countrymen ; anil there being not as yet a work 
lislied in the local dialect to serve as a safe i<uide to a 
knowledge of the spoken laiiguap^e, lie felt that in using 
any of the existing Grammars he would act like a miui 
living ill London and using a French Grammar for the ac- 
quisition of Englisli. The Oi'thogmp !、 y of most of the 
smaller works that were afterwards [)ul)li.shed is only adap- 
ted for private use. The intonntion has altogetlier been 
discarded, which makes the respective works often dan- 
i':erous instruments to place into the hands ef a new ar- 

As to the Ortliography to be adopted in tlie present 
work, the author had no he.^itcition in giving ISir W. Jones' 
(wliora Dr. Williams follows) tlie j.-rcfbrence. Many of 111 e 
diacritical marks now used by foi'cigiiers are not required 
for natives and may, therefore, soon he done away with. 
That will leave a simple and excellent system of spoiling, 
such as can he ai^quii-ed by a native of moderate talent 
witLin tlie short period of one month. 

To invent a new alnliabet, as several excellent scho- 
lars have propose:!, would leave us in the same -position in 
which we now find ourselves in Japan. Si am. Tibet, Bur- 
mah and India, were the luck of a more practical system 
of spelling is keenly felt by tlie students of those tongues. 

We must well keep in mind, tli :it the further we ad- 
vance in cii'iHztU; (; the nearer are nation y bro'iglit togc- 



ther anfl the more we shall feel the need of a Standard 
Alphabet, that will enable a native of Europe to read the 
iiaiiies on maps made by the nations of Asia and Africa, 
and to as (? ertain (approximiitoly) the pronunciation of a 
word without any acquired knowledge of the language of 
the country . 

In order to assist the student in the acquisition of the 
written and spoken idioms and to enable him to avoid the 
study of unnecessary or useless sentences, the author has 
endeavoured to the book style from the v<i- 
I'ious dialects. At the end of most of the para'iiTaphs 
there will be foiiiid a summary of the words in use in the 
Canton dialect. Whilst 《lie student of that dialect ad- 
vances in the Grammar, lie should carefully commit to 
memory all the sentences and verbs in the Introduction. 
A list of Phonetics for writinj^-lessons will be published 
shortly after the second part of this Grammar is com- 
pleted, and the aiitlior hopes that with tlie hints thus givcu, 
the student will be enabled to learn to write the cliarac- 
tei's of the Chinese 】angmii£!;e within one yea r and to re- 
meiiil)cr tlieiii tlirougliout his life. 

The difficulties encountered in preparing the present 
work have boon very great. Ik'sides tlie Provei-hs and 
two Reading Lessons the author met with but little help 
i'mm existing books, lie can, however, not pass over in 
silence the .valual>le assistance rendered to him by tlic 
】ate Mrs. Irwin, in looking over the first (; pages of the 
manuscript. He also feels greatly indebted to the Rev. 
Mr. Striug-cr for his kindness in correctiiiijj the last proof's. 

Simplicity anrl usefulness have been tlie sole object 
aimed at by the aiitlior. lie has enck'uvoured to collect 
for reading Ics.^oiis new and iiiterostiiig intl'i-niatiou on (lie 
government, reliirion, maiinei's and custoiiis of tlio Cliiii- 
ose, so as to ac(|u;iiiit the student not only willi llio hm- 
gnagc, but also with the routine and daily life oi (lie pt' (卜 
l»]e, among wlioiu lie is anxious to sojourn, 

SiiK'O tlic Imrninu' of llic Fnctories and the dcsl nic- 
tioii of tlic printing office of (he A. fk C. F. M., great dif- 



ficiilties have ])cen experienced in gettin'u' a work like the 
present tli rough the press. The autlioi' would, tlicrcfore, 
ask the indulgence of tlio reader for defects iu tlie out- 
ward appearance of the l)ook. Whilst thauldn'o; sm'li jis 
liavc assisted him with their counsel, he shall led greatly 
obliged for additional help for a new edition. 

W. L. 

Victoria, Hongkong, April, 1S(U. 



Affinity and Difference of Itacrs. 

Whkn a person coming; trorn Europe and travelling; eastward, pas- 
ses thi'ouj;'h a nu raber of states, whose inhiibitaiits differ g'l'eatly iVoin liitu 
in coinpUixion, costume and religion, his curiosity is excited as be ad- 
vanoos ; for the nearer he approaches India, the gi-eater Is tlie simiLiritj 
of features with his own, and the cioser the affinity of the Itinj^'imjio 
spoken by the sister states of Europe. Tlitt larg*6, sparkling* eyes of the 
eastern nations, so f\ir as tliey are unmixed with the Moag*olians from 
the deserts of Asia, have for more than 3000 years, rev^elled in sensua- 
lity ; but combined with it poetry, fiction and wit, with wliich the 
<i;raver nations of the west still amuse their chiMren or entertuiu them- 
selves durin;^ the long* winter evening's. 

The ^igautic works the)' created for themselves and their g'ods ara 
as many expressions of their character and sentiments, and represent 
them to us us a peo[)le anxious to por})etuate their own existence on this 
earth, or to induce their g'ods to quit their abodes of bliss and dwell vvitli 
man in the works of Ids creation. 

Crossing' the Himalaya how different is the aspect of affairs. Poly- 
gamy and its accompanying vices is here exchanf>'ed with Polyandry, 
The panorama before us is not unlike an encampment of proletarians, 
who are living upon the scanty crumbs fallen frooi the overtlowiaoj tables 
of their neij^'libours. The wing's of iinag-inntion are clipped. Tied to a 
barren soil, hemmed in by mountains and deserts, who wonders, that the 
Tibetian's daily song is : " My home is not here ", that ha has created 
another world equally poor and comfortless ; and that his charitabia 
disposif i()n hns imposed upon him the task of providing for the necessi- 
ties of tho citizens of that 、vurl(l. 

The lan.o;uage spoken by this people and further eastward to the 
Pacific : in China, Coohin Cliina, Si am and Biivmali' belongs to the mo- 
nosyllabic ton;^'ues and is notHcI for poverty and inflexibility. The pho- 
r»etic fivstein introdroduced into Tibet, Burmali and Si am has indeed to 
a certain degree assisted in advancing- i^eiieral p.diication ; but this li is 
been more than counteracted by the influence of Budhisai and the na- 
cient superstition, as received from the Chinese. 

China appears to have l)eea the cradle of that peculiar kin^l 
of civilization which distinguishes it from the rest of the world. But 
their ideas petrefied in hieroglyphics before tliey were fully developed ; 
and their advance in literature was marked by the Ibrmation of a svstem 
of ideography., wliicli baing' muLe in ilsolfj is pro;iouaced acoordiag' to 



different Viahcls in China. Peculiantu o f the nortJwrn Court Dialect ^ 

the local dialects, however much they dirfer from each other. Now you hear 
n. vernacular, wliicli reminds you of Scandinavia ; again you foncy your- 
solf in France ; and again you ;\re overlieaped with gutturals, more than 
in Holhnil and other parts of the Netherlands. But in spite of the jorks 
and unearthly soimd:^, the result oT an imperfect avticniation, Ciiiua mwde 
considerable prog-i'ess in civilization, which enabled it to subdue aiul re- 
form the surrounding*' burbarinns, and to exercise a nominal sway from 
Central Asia to the Pucilic and down to the Malayan reuinsnla. In uU 
tViG- 化 states, eve a in Japarij tlie Chinese characters became the medium 
ot official communication, and occupy, up to this moment, the same po- 
sition thnt Latin did in Europe during* the middle ag'e. 

If the dialects in China were reduced to a phonetic system, wo 
shonlJ have as many different laag*an^*es as we have in Europn aad 
ainon,^ the ah()ri'j;-iiies of America. Wt) should fin>l that the Cliinese 
veraacuhir is hv no riionns a purely monosyllahic toui^uoj and that the i'ur- 
tliei' we advance towards the nortlt, the more similarity we find in the 
form of the lan^'u;ig*es b'9tw"een China, Janau and the American Iiidians. 

Ta the Canton, Ilakka and other soutlierri dialecrs 、ve frequently 
hear tlie finals p, t, and k ; further to the north and in what 】s g^ne- 
niUy called tlie southern Court dialect, these consonants terminate in aa 
jibrupt sound, in wliicli neither llie p, t or k can be distinjruisheH ; again 
farther north this abrupt sound terminates in a long vowel. Hence the 
name oi the Governor General of Canton, wlio was captured by the 
English, is pronounced yip in Punti ; yap in Hakka ; yl (abrnptly) iu 
the southern, and yell (lon^') in the northern Court dialect. The only 
final consonant left in the latter dialect is the N, and tlie nasal Ng. The 
1), becomes B ; the M —- N ; the H or W chiing'es into the guttural Ch. as 
it is pronounced in all its nuances in Germany, or the X in Greece. 

If we now pass over to Japan we liiul, that if the IriUguag-o be cor- 
rectlv written, not a sinp-le syllable terminates in a consonant but tlie N. 
All the prefixes and suffixes are, as in China, Siam and Tibet, inflexible 
particles, and the possessive " of" stands detachoJ as in the Enylibh lan- 
g-uag'e, as : Mimasaka no kami, the knmi of Miraasaka ; Siu'ug'a no kami 
the kami of Suruo-a. It certainly cannot be mere accitlent that the same 
form should be found in many lan2;uag'es of the American Indians. 

When in America and calloLl upon to read a few lines in a book in 
■vvhich the Indian lanj^uagH was transcribed according to Spanish pro- 
mmciatioii, I was struck witli the similarity of the sonruls with the Ja- 
])ane.S8. In opening* another book, also written in the same langnmg-e, I 
found oa the title i):v;e tlie Enu;lirih word "Acts" prefixed to Apos- 
teliiu/' L e., the " Acts of the Apostles." The Nu, Japiinese No, had ei- 
ther from ignorance or from :i desire to europeanizo the laiig-iuige, been 
affixed to the the word Apostle. 

This tlirew at once some light on tbe clnracter of the lang'unoe and 
the prob'iblo origin of tlie Indians. Their long words, I was sure, were 
stnmj^ t'jji'etlier from ignorance ; lor all the names underneath the por- 
traits of cliiefs indicate, tint the lari<*;uapfG was originally a syllabic (if 
nut a monosyllubic) ono, like the Chinese and JapuuesC; au'l tliat when 



SivrUarify Chinese, Japanese and American Indian Dialects. 

reduced to a phonetic system, v'liole sentences wore reduced to a single 

? Jy conjectures were not lonp: to remain without practical proof. 
I soon learnt, that the Jnjianese ambii^^sadors, when in California, acci- 
dentally asked for cVi chL tLe ln<Iian name for milk. This reniarkaMe 
coincidence led to an inquiry, which resnltod iu th'^ discovery of six Ja- 
panese names in the Caiifornia Indian dink '(; t. 

I would liere rcMiiark, that those Indians, who chiefly support them- 
selves by hunting' and fishiug, speak dialects in sound mucli more sinii- 
lav to the Japanese and Tartnrs of northern Asia, than in Yucatan, Cen- 
tral America, and Mexico. Here where we find the ideogu^aphic inscrip- 
tions so similar in composition to the ancient Chinese characters, we have 
also languages or dialects resemblin*^- more that of northern China. For 
i)i these languages (or dialects) wo meet tlie same preponderance of com- 
pound hissing sounds nnd vowels as in China, and the absence of the R 
is no less remarkable. Ilitheito however, ihe orthography of the works 
jmblished iu (he Otoini, Quiche and other languages of Yucatan, Cen- 
tral Amer*u';:i nud Mexico is too incorrect to enable us to decirie on any 
point witliont a thorou<;"!i knowledfi'e of at \oA\^t one of them. Even the 
copies, which Stephen made from the nianu^scripts of the priests, betray 
a lamentable inconsistency of ortbogrophy. 

Ameriam Indians apparenlhj one Hace ivilh the Japanese and K Asiatics. 

If we coin|)are the stature, features, hair and complexion of the In- 
dians, we cannot help declaring them to be either Ja})aiieso, C!iines(3 or 
other cogiiote tribes of eastern Asia. I have seen women and children^ 
whom nobody would have taken tor Indiiins, had lie found them iu one 
of the Islands of Japan. In passing accross the Isthmus of Panama 
and Mexico, I was struck with tlio similarity of architecture between 
the Chinese and these peo[)le. Instead of excavating* mountnins, instead 
of making' expensive vaults, all the principal edifices are erected on ele- 
vated o-roiuid. The tiles of the roofs are com";ve and ooir ox, j ust as wo 
have them iu Cliimi ; the anchors of tlieir boats are the same as we find 
ttiem in Jnpan arni tlie north of China, i, e. with four books without a 
barb ; and innu merable other manners, customs nnd peculiarities of civi- 
lazation a^-ree exactly with those of eastern 丄 sia, as in no other country 
of the world. 

We now come to inquire as to how these tribes could reach Ame- 
ricji. Duriri;^ the sum iner monthsj when the sun did not set for one 
•whole month, the iiilmbitp.nts of the extreme parts of northeastern Asia, 
either pressed by hostile tribes, or from an impulse of ud venture, must 
liave crossed over to the Ameiican continent, where either hj h unting* or 
fishing, thev could easily sn]^port themselves and provide for their wonts 
(lurinj^ the cominj^ winter. Wave after wave of immigiMlion is likely to 
have rolled on ; and if only, at long' intervals, a few returned to their 
native place, that was sufficient to account for a kno\\lxlj>'e of a lavjSQ 
Eastern continent^ floating; among the Cliioese, Japanese and other Asia- 



American Iadia》i< likely Jrom China ^ Japan and N 、 E. Attia. 

The large fleets of fishing- boats about the coasts of Japnn unci China 
are, we know, frequently overtaken by tremeridous gales and either des- 
troyed or carried eastwards. We know of Japanese junks having- be»m 
picked up beyond the Sandwich Islands and close to the shore of Ame- 
rica after an iibsence of move than nine months. But mudi more. 
Larg'e fleets of war junks, sometimes manned by as many as 100,000 men, 
have left the coast of China and Jaj>an, and liuve been scUtered by the 
N. W. gules, tli:U only few of them ever sm'vived or returned. It is not 
unlikely, that these junks, being well provisioned, have rontinued in their 
eastward course, until, within 28 dej^-rees N. L. they fell in with the 
trade 、vim】, whioh compelleil thorn to cbang-e their course, nnd carried 
thorn towards Mexico or lower C;iliibniia, where they laid the founda- 
tion to that kind of civilization reseinbling* so much the Chinese and 
Japanese. Look at the Chinese dress 5 or 6 centuries ago, and you have ibe 
bead ― dress of the Mexicans ; look at the monstrous uniforms, ooats-of- 
mail, and the head ― dress of the Japoneso women, and yoii will be struck 
with theii;. siaiilarity to the Mexicans. As nil thfi kini^g, chiefs, and 
priests, in one word, all the creators of tnat peculiar ci viliz;tion were 
dL'stroyed hij the Spaniards, we need not wonder at tlie low el>b of edu- 
cation of the present race, who are inerel}'" the children of ppfisants and 
the lower classes. Were Chinese who speak the ditFerent dialects and 
well versed in their own literature, ami Japanese of education, well fur- 
nished with ancient works, seat with sciea^iHc men to Anipvicn, we may 
rest assured, they would soon decvpher the inscriptions now iast going 
to ruin. 

Hummari/ of Similarity if the American Indians with the Japanese^ Chinese 
and Northern Asiatics. 

1. LanQua*^©. Monosyllabic, as spoken by the (Jtomi and other tribes. Hlero- 
prlyphs or ideo-^n aphic chaniciers. on the same principle a\ the Chinese ; absence of 
the R Hmoni>r those tril)es where the Kleoy:rAi'hic ch^it actei's are found ; prevalence of 
hissini? sounds ami gutturals, and m^st words terminating in a vowel-2. Polysylla- 
bic language of a syllabic cha»*icter, representing; not sound, but sijllahhs in Ja- 
pan. Japanese words detected in the Indian langua;^6 ; Japanese form of the pos- 
se^sise cas*^ ; prevalence of the B. an'l the terniinatioa of every W'jrd ia a vowel^ 
except the N, 

2. Reli;4ion. The most ancient religion of the Indians now formina t>e wan- 
lieiini? tribes, is the belief ia one great Spirit, whom tliey worship like the Japanese 
their Sin Jpjjl (spirit) without iina;^c. In both pUces long, hortatory addresses are 
iiolivered to tlie andieMce. and both exhibit profound reverence of that spirit, and 
d.*ep reliirious feelmi^s. The polythcisiK; tovm of worship as found in Mexico &c., 
is, accordiu^ to acc^'ptefl history, the most m one and was, if we Relieve Chin- 
ese legends, inlrodaced by Budhist and Sh-iman priests about, the be.^inninpj of the 
Rix 貧 h century of oui era, which nearly coincides with the commenccnnciit of the Tol- 
tecian history, wliich is put down at A. 0. 596. The dragon or serjK^ut worship 
was very prevalent. That the Chinese drn-ron is norhing hut a serpent, can be 
proved fi om tlic f;vct„ that at this moment s(?i-p(!ats are kept in temples as lenresen- 
tatives of tlie annicnt dr>igon. They resembled the Chinese and (Miulliist.) Jiipanese 
in ihoir ide ts of " the tmnsmi.^ri'ation of the soul ;,' in their moiiastic forms and dis- 
cipline ; '• in their ponanrcs. ablutions. fUms;'ivi" 二' s and public festivals ; iu ihc wor- 
ship of th'Mi" hoiiseiioM in the devotions of the prie -、 ts to the study < f ''str"l。gy 
iiid astt ouv>nij ; m the adiuission of virgin females to tbo vo、vs and rites of the clois- 


Summary of Similarity ^c. ,^-c. Origin of the Written Language. 

ter ; in the incense, lUurgies and chants of their worship ; in their use of charms and 
amulets ; in some of tbeir forms of burniui? the dead, ^nd the preservation of the 
nshes io urns, and in the assumption of tho rit;ht to educate the youth." Among- 
other superstitious notions the one of a celcst.icvl dragon endeavouring" to devour thd 
sun du rin^ an eclipse, and their fondness for the drum, gong and rattles. 

3. Customs. ― The dra^^oa standard, banner Imces, as we find them in Chinese 
Budhist temples ; eiis'c^ns and banners stuck in a ferula, fixed at the back of a war- 
rior . A Kind of heralilry. as we meet amon'j the Japanese. Some of their nuptials 
were symbolized by the ceremony of tyini; the garmeats of thatwo contracting par- 
ties to;;ether. There was only one lawful wife, though a plurality of concubines. 
I hav»i already referred to the similarity of dress, architecture and anchors of 

Phy>iolou:ically considered there is not the slightest difference between theso 
tri'jes and thosv of Japan and China, and the tribes among" themselves differ no more 
from each other than the people of Europe of one and the same stock. 

Crossing over to the Atlantic we meet witb legends pointing to a northeastern 
and eastern immi;:^ration. Pictures of bearded men dre hore and there found, and 
fi£;ares in distress with Caucasian" features have Ion;? been preserved amoug the 
Toltecs. Teutonic words are here and there interspersed among the piratical Caribs, 
Makusi and other tribes, and the strange proper names fuund among the Mexicans, 
aud of which there are no roots in the same tooarue. indicate a very slight influenco 
of eAsterti origin, but noc sufficient to change the fundamental Asiatic character of 

The key to this would be, frequent hostile expeditions alonj; the coast of Europe 
anrl nortbern Africa being, by storm and the gulf stream, carried into tho Caribic se», 
where the few that survived, were soon absorbed by the natives. But much more 
than that ; we know that Irish priests arrived at Iceland as early as A..D. 793, or 
more than 70 years before the Normans, an'l cfirtaia leaeads inform us, that Irish- 
men, pressed by Rom va and Gormanic invaders, crossed the Atlantic even earlier 
tbaa the above period and settled in Florida, where tbey were met with by the ad- 
venturers from Iceland. They appear, however to have either been killod or been 
absorded hy the nntives, who on one occasion seized no less than 1 00 whites, carried 
them into the interior, and would have murdered them, had not another white, ap- 
parently a chief, saved them. The character he gave of the natives was similar to 
th it later tjiveu by the Spaniards. From that time (A. D. 1G27) all intercourse 
with A.mei*ica is brokeu qS aud the land forgotten. 

Origin of the written language* 

When the ancient Chinese felt the need of a written medinra for 
comninnicatirii^ their ideas to one anotlier, they represented them by hie- 
; 'o^'lyphics. Thi^se were oHginnlly notliing but rude outlines of natural 
objects, as : ― O the sun. To express morning, a line was drawn be- 
neath the sun indicating- that the sun is above tho horizon. Other 
ab.-itract ideas, havin^; reference to space, were represented in a similar 
manner, as : ― above__j^, below ~r~. The character irpresented by sun and 
moon, put together .si^jifies- brightness, iUustration,. illumination &c. 
Idoas having reference to the mind, are expressed by the heart ; quick per- 
ception, intellig^encej by the ear &c. The classification of the characters 
Ufxder six heads, i.e., ― 

1. 象形 Tseim^^ ^ying, hieroglyphics, or outlines of natural objects ; ' 

2. 《段借 ^Ka ts6^ metaphorical, or borrowed idea's ; 

3. 指事 ^Ciii sz^ significative or pointing* out objects. ; I 



Origin of the WritteM Language. 

4 ^^意 XJi^ 1^ ideographic or combination of Ideas ; ^ 

5 韓 ^ 主 ^Chun. cliii' antithetical or inverting; signification ; ' 

6 聲形 fShing ^ying phonetic, or such as giving- sound ; V 
c:;n be reduced under two heads : hierogyphic and ideog-raphic characters. 
The former representinji^ the radicals, and the latter the compound cha- 
racters, must be well distingaished from words. Many radicals (、r primi- 
tives may form one compound character ; but one or two such cbarac- 
'ters may'Vui uecessary to express one word or idea. 

The liieroo'lypliics were, in their original form, too clumsy and im- 
practicable to remain long' in use, hence an artificial form was soon sub- 
stituted tor them, 

(T) sun, was changed into 曰 j 

|vv] mountain into 山 . 

<3> eye into 目; and philosophy in all its branches 

was brou*^'lit to bear upon the formiition of new characters. 

The number of original hiei'o;:;'lyphics, now radicals, is 214. These 
ju'e however, not all simple cliaract^rs, on which account we might even 
reduce that small number considerably. Some are very complicated and 
belong to that class of characters, which we would call phonetics. 

Taldni" it for granted, that the spoken language existed before the 
written, that it was as monotonous (lack of diversified sounds) and mo- 
nosyllabic as it is now, the most practical question that sug*g'ests itself 
"to our mind is this : What rule guided them in the formation oj the cha- 
racter 1 If we are able to ascertain this, we have g-aineJ a great step 
and shall find it not so difficult a task to remember even complicated 

Character of the written language. 

The 21/i radicals we woukl call Relatives, and the primitives formed 
by a combinatiou of one or more radicals we would call Phonetics, We 
must be well understood, that we only deal with those characters, which 
we suppose to be the representatives of the spoken lnn<>uage, as it existed 
at tho time, when the written characters were introduced. 

The phonetics were either simple ov compounds, i. e- sometimes only 
a single radical was required to express the monosyllabic word, whilst 
again certain compounds assuming' the power of phonetics. 

Three piinciples guided them in the formation of characters. 

1. the representative ; 

2. the i(leo2;vnphic ; and 

3. the phonetic. 

1. Of tho first class tlie number ?s not very great. None' of the 
characters of which they are composed, has anything to do with the 

sound or spoken word ; f. i. 坐 W to sit down is composed of ,yan 人, 

man, and V6 土, earth. As the author could not find a form which in 



Character of the Written LatujUdge. 

Bound corresponded to the colloquial word tso^, he represented two raea 
sitting on the ground. 

Yan* 孕 to be pregnant, is composed of 乃 -nui, to be, and 'tsz 子 
child. None of the characters has any reference to the word yan^ but a 
pregnant woman is represented as ― being witli a child. 

2. The ideographic and phonetic principles are in most instances com- 
bined ; but not always, f. i. mak, ink expresses the idea of hakj 

black, and 土 Vo, substance=a black substance. 

Yule, 獄 a prison, is composed of two ^bun, dop's, and ^in 百, 
woril, to say, to speak. The author s idea of n prison, tJierpfore, must 
have been th:it of n pi nee where one is constant! v -.iunoyed as when I»et- 
woen two (lo;^^, or where luea hold coavcr^aLioii of" us vile a character as 
that of dogs. 

3. ^'jju^t.pUtjnetic principle pve.lominiUos over every other in the for- 
ma ti on of cluiracters. Its extensive a[)plicatiou almost entideVlt to the 
*^3esigntUion of the syllubic system of the laui^tiag-e. These syllables prove 
incontesribly, that the authors oi the written languaije emleavonred to 
invent; a mixlti of reprej^enrinij^ tlie langniag-e os spoken ; but combining- 
ideof>'raphy with tlit? phonetic system, they soon found it siiperfluoiis to 
Avrito for the ear, as the Heo nij»hk' character fully conveyed the mean- 
ini^ to the reader. Henfc^ it came, that the liinguag'e by tieg-rees asstini- 
e:l more of the monosyllabic character, which prot>'ressed with the ex- 
tension of letters and g'eneral education. 

Examples, where the ideographic and plionetic systems are combined. 

P^a^ to be afraid, is coinyKsed of pak, (Court dialect p'ah) and 
heart. As the author l)roui»-lit bis philosophical notions to bear on the for- 
mation of the character, and that bein_i>' that of a pale lieart when fi-i^lit- 
ened, he selectei.! a character possessing' both attributes : sound, and the 
colour of u frightened mrin. But as paleness from p'lV frig'ht, stands in 
intimate relation to the heart, he united them aad thus represented idea 
and sound in one word. 

(Lung- a ho】e, is composed of 穴 iih, a hole, a den, and %% ^lung* 
a dragon. The author coasiderini; the habitiition of drag'ons to be caves, 
holes, placed a dragon under shelter in a natural cave, or hole, so ihat by 
seeing* the character, one's i(】eas are at once associated with ― a hole, 
whilst Junj)f would remind him of the word in common use. 

It would lead us too far, were we to trace this interesting, but un- 
profitable, subject any further ; we would, therefore, proceed to the pure 
phonetics, or those characters, which represent the lan^-uage as it in some 
parts still is, or was, once, spoken. It the student will pay strict atten- 
tion to the phonetics, he will find it couipai'ati vely easy to learn to write 
and to remember the pronunoiation of a character. 

Note, ― Under a phonetic system we understand not merely syllables but a 
capacity of dissecting these into consonants and vowels, as is impossible 
with the Cliinese phonetics. 



Character of the Written Lanf/uage. The lieUitives. 


The phonetics are of a stereotype character and are composed of one, 
or more relatives (radicals), of wLicli there are 214 now in genertil 

The Jiclatives. 

Formed with 1 Stroke, 
~" ' Yat, one ; unity. 

I 'Kw'an, To pass through. 

3 'Cbii A point, a lord. 

/ F% A left stroke 

乙 Utj Curveil ; a lio'i'ai'y 

] Tviit, A barb ; hooked. 

2. Strokes. 

二 i' Two. 

sT'au A cover. 

人 { jYan Man. 

儿 jYan A man walking. 

y\ Yiipj To enter. 

A Pat, Eight. 

f~j jKwing 人 limit. 

To cover. 

A bench. 
A receptacle 
A knife. 
To infold. 
A spoon, 
A chest. 
To conceal. 

To divine. 
卩 已 Ts'it, A seal. 
厂 Hon' A shelter. 

f ("Ping 
几 (I" 
U <H6m 

匕 (Pi 
E ("Fong 
〔 'Hai 
十 Shnp, 

I、 Puk, 

28. 么 'Man 

29. % Yau' 


80. 口 'ITau 

32. 土 叮' 6 
士 Sz^ 
; U. CLP 
35. 义 (iShui 

50. 夕 Tsik, 
37". 夫 T(i? 
38. 女 '; Nii 
o9. 子 T^z 

40. ^ ,Min 

41. 寸 Ts'iin' 
40. /j、 'Siu 

44. 尸 (Shi 

45. >^ Ch'it, 
4(). |ll ^Shan 

47. {{{)\\ 

48. 工 (Ku'ig 

49. B 【Ki 
oO ifl ,Kan 

51. 于 ,Koii 

53. 广 <Im 

54. ^ 'Yan 


The moutli. 
To inclose. 
A scliolir. 
To Mem. 
To walk slowlj. 



A child. 

A cover. 

An inch. 

^Wonp- distorted 

A corpse. 

A Sj)roat. 

A moiintuin. , 

,Ch'un A stream. 


One's self. 

A napkin. 

A shield. 


Shelter, roof. 
A journey. 



The Itelatices. 

65. ; 'Kungf To join hands. 

Yik, An arrow. 
r)7. 弓 fKung" A bow. 

swino's bead. 
^"'9. ^ fShara Feathers, hair. 
00. ^ Ch'ik, A short 

4 Strokes. 

(U. 、个/ 如 (Sam The heart. 

戈 (l"vo A spear. 
(3: 丄 戶 Li* A door. 
61:. 手 (Shau A hand. 
05. 支 ,Chi A branch. 
tK;. P^ok, A hhw. 

67. 文 tMan Letters. 

Tau A measure. 

69. 斤 (Kan A catty. 

70. 方 ,FoTig A square. 

71. :^无 iMo Without, not. 

72. Yat, The sun. 

73. 曰 tit, To speak. 
74:. 月 ti^i The moon. 
75. 木 Mukj Wood. 
7G. ^ Him' To owe. 
77. 止 (CM To stop. 
73. 歹夕 'Tui Evil. 

79. ,Shu Weapons. 

80. 母 cMo Do not. 

81. j^fc (Pi To compare. 

82. % t^Io Hair. 

83. 氏 Shi' A family. 

84. 气 IIP Breath. 

85. 水? ^ 'Shui. 

80. jJ《,fJ"、 'Fo Fire. 
87. jTV 4* *Chdu Claws. 

88. 义 Fu^ A father. 
g9_ ^ ^Ng-iiu To imitate, 
go. 7^ jCh'ong- A Couch. 

91. U P'm' A splinter. 

92. ^ iNga' Teeth. 

93. iNj^au A cow. 
91. 犬 j 'Hun A dog. 

5 Strokes. 

95. ^ jUn bouibre. 

96. 玉王 Yuk, A '^em. 

97. 瓜 ^Kwa A melon. 

98. M. ; Eurthen. 

99. 甘 ,K6in Sweet. 

100. 生, SMng To produce. 

101. 用 Yung^ To use, 

105. ^ i'C'm A field. 

103. ^ P(at) A roll, a piece. 

104. 厂 Nikj Diseased. 
10,5 'y 乂 rut, To separate. 

106. 白 White. 
皮, P(i Skin. 

108. 皿 'Ming A dish. 

109. 目 MnkjThe eye. 

1 10. 矛 jMdu A spear, 
ni 矢 *Ch'i An arrow. 
112. 石 Shek, A stone. 

示? Slu^ To admonish. 

Hi. ft] 'Yau To creep, 

no. jWo Grain. 

116. 穴 I' ti A cave. 

117. 立 Liipi To stand up. 

C Strokes. '! 

118. 竹 Chuk, Bamboo. 



Ultc Jlelativcs. 


I oo 










米 Mai Rice. 
^ ,Sz' Silk. 

,Fau Crockery, 
^[rn JL 'Mong A net. 

jYt'ung A sheep. 
初 '■{] Wing's. 
老 ^Ix> Aged. 
而 ; 1 And, still. 

Lo? A plough. 

'I An ear. 

率 Lntj A pencil, 
r^l j-J Yuk, Flesh. 
-臣 !; Shan A minister. 
自 Tsji) Self; from. 
—至 Chi^ To extend to. 
白 ; K':'tu A mortal'. 
舌 Shitj The tongue. 
^ (Cli'iin Va-tov. 
舟 ^Chau A boat ; a vessel. 
良 Kau' Perverse. 
色 Sliik, Color; 

cTs'o Shrubs. 
声 <Fii A tiger. 
虫 sCli'ung Keptiles. 
血 Hiit, Blood. 
行 Jiang' To walk. 

X Clothing. 
而 'Hu To oversee ; west 

7 Strokes. 
見 Kill' To see. 
角 Kok, A horn. 
脊 ; Tn Words. 
谷 Kuk, A valley. 
豆 Tau^ rulse. 

豕 TJLi'i Swine. 
^ (Cli'i Eeptiles. 

赤 Ch^k, Flesh color. 

* 'Tsau To run, 
足 Tsuk, The foot. 

# ,Sliau The body, 
車: K(i A carnage. 
羊 (San Bitter, 

; Slum Time. 
ii:X^ Cli'euk, Motion, 
邑 [5 Yap) A city. 
酉 -Yaii Spirits. 

Pill; To separate, 
M '-Li A mile. 

8 Strokes. 

67. 金 (Kam Metal. 

08. 長長 sCh'eung' Long, old. 

69. PI ,Mun A door. 

70. 阜 P IW A mound. 

71. ^ To? To extend to 

72. 隹 .Clmi Fowls. 

73. 雨 "U" Kain. 

74. 靑 jTs'iiig Green, azure. 
To. 非 (l,i Not ; wrong", 

9 Strokes. 
面 Min^ Tlie face. 



革 Kak, 
韋 ; Wai 
韭 'Kau 
音 (Yam 

風 (Fm]g': Wind. 

Skin, hide. 
To oppose. 
The head. 


』'hc llelatives. The ritonetics. The Spohcn Lamjiuvjc .jr., Ac. 

1S:1 飛 ,Fi T« fly. 
181. 食 Shik, To eat. 
IISS. 首 (Slmu lie head. 
ISO. ^ 

10 Strokes. 
]S7. 馬 OIu A horse. 
1、S8. Kwat, Bones. 

高 (Kd ITioh. 

(rii'i Long- Imir; 
191, Pi Tau) To (i"arwl, 

•ng-rant plant 
1 ! )o. 爾 Lik, A tripod, urn, 
鬼 'Kwui A demon. 

11 Strokes. 

200. 娜 :Ma 

A fish. 
A bird. 
A deer. 

12 Strokes. 
201. 黄 cWong Yellow. 
:?() 丄 ^ 'Shii Millet. 
。0'3. M Ilak, ; Black. 
-04. ^1 'Ch'i 'Jo embroider. 
] o Strokes. 
^^- §S A froo-. 

20(5. 一 'Tin- A tripod. 
207. 鼓 (Kfi A drum. 

(Shi'i A mouse. -- 
11: Strokes. , 
20!). 戰 rp Tbe nose. 
lUa 齊 ; Ts'.ai Even, correct, 

15 Strykes. 

211. M 'CM The teeth. 

16 Strokes. 

212. 籠 Ximg- A dragon. 

,K\vni A tortoise. 
17 Strokes. 
M. ^ Yeiik, A flute. 

The Phonetics. The Si^ohcn language Bcjncsented in the Charucler. 

In looking into a l\juic Dictionary, one must be struck with the 
laru'e number ot characters, wliich when separated from their respective 
ir la rives, retain tbe same sound tliev had in their various combinacion?, 
thougli their components had no reference whatever to the meanin^^' of 
the word. When kovvever, the plionetic has a signification of its own, 
it frequently conveys the meaning of a whole sentence, and is not only 
ideographic, but its components correspond also in sound to the spoken 


JBt 'ts^ii to taka. 

't^'ii to take. 


Object. Combination. ■Signification 

tuii a female. 娶 tsW 化 歸 ?:, ^。 

( take a wile. 

^ ^L<au to rua. 趣 fsT f to luke toyuir 

( liuelb^ to nm. 

魚鳥! I 鹿麥一 

o 9 9 9 9 



Tin' ^polwn LiUKjucnje h'epresentcd hi the. Character. The Vho7u tics. 

京 y^^Zy c 叩: t"l (^'ity)lS a lish. fij c^'ing- 

T <kung to lubour, 力 lik^, [with] vigour. 功 ^kung- 
工 JCung to labour 

a capitiil lish, a 
whale, tlie lar- 
gest of mons- 

to perform ac- 
tions deser i^njif 
praise ; merito- 
rious ifec. 

,? 1 — 攻 (kuns'{t。 ntiack ; to 
( out blows ^ " ( assault. 

These few examples show, that the ancient Chinese, after having 
(liscnr<le<l the Lieroglyphics, entleuvoured to represent thoir ideas as ex- 
pressed in the vernacular to"g,"e. The further we go to the north, or 
tri€» nf!arer>ive nppronoh nntiquity, the <;realer will be the siinilai'ity be- 
tween the sound of the dissected character and the spoken language. 

The purely phonetic sysleiii, where the sound represents the spokt^n 
languiip'e, irrespective of ^lie manning of the coinpoiin J, is the most pre- 
valent, and to this the student sliould pay liis undivided utttintion. 

Examples of ^ the riionetic 同 ^T'luig', 
Adil to tlie relative, ― 
(kam, metal, the phonetic 同 ^t^ung, and you liave copper, ) >^ . 

to } L| ,slian, mountain, do. 
to 木 iiiukj, wood, do. 
It) 竹 eliukj J Lamboo, do. 


ffj .ii, fish, do. 


w i ll ten 
do. a cavern, written : 
do. a certain treo^ ,, 'jfsj 
do. a tube, " ; 

do. a species of lish^ " 蕭 ij) . 

Examples of Jung- 
Ad tl to the re】 :化 h'e, 一 
口 { (ha'',inj>i=i,J^||『||jung,and】'oulKivef|i;lungs the throat; 

to ^ ^shau, arm, do. do. do. 機; lung', ■ [; 。 'uni'sp, 

• , " (to seize ; 

to shekj stone, do. 
to 木 mukj tree, wooJ, do, 

to 竹 cliuk, baiiftboo, do. 
to 'i ear, do- 




a cage, nn 
、 enclosure; 

fl§j Jung-, a bird cage ; 
錄 Jung-, deafness. 
Examjiles of Fu, Fuk, , 
Add iji jcL'o, a chariot, to fu or fuk v.Q- you have 車 |S fuk, | (\!;-?, ""^fjj,,!]^ 




Jung, to rub ; 
櫳 — g, 



The Phonetics, Sacred A )i hi" h "'c, Jhffh'mt of Wrilhig, 

( a roll of pa- 
Add 巾 (kan, a napkin, to fu or fuk @ & you have 輻 fuk〕 i ^^。!^! ^la': 
一 ( maps Sco. 

" jyi shP a sig-n of heaven, do. do. do. 福 fuk, happiness. 

Sacred A7iimals 

Many an animal has been declared sacred by popular belief on ac- 
count of its name being the same as that of happiness or pi'osp(u'ity. 
Hence a bat is a sucM-ed being, because it is called tuk^ , the same sound 
and tone signifying- liapinness. A deer is an animal bringing prosperity 
to its master, because it is called luk^ , a word correspond in<»* in sound 
and tone exactly to luk^ , emoluments of office ; prosperity &c. And the 
sixth day of the sixrli month is, by virtue of the double Ink^ (G, 6) a dpu- 
bly lucky day ; and officers of hig'li rank, in order to derive the full be- 
nefit of it, wash on that day their own clothing. 

As the number of diameters, that have assumed the power of pho- 
netics, is comparatively small, a thorough knowledge of them is of great 
value to the student, for it will eiiaole him to remember the most com- 
plicated characters without inucli difficulty. A stock of about 1,500, 
learnt at the beginning of study, will make the recollection of the com- 
ponents of a character easy, wlienever (as is frequently the case with mis- 
sionaries) pressure of duties compels him to leave the pen or brush un- 
touched in the desk. 

In a country where literature has been cutlivated in so hig-h a de- J 
^ree, we must expect to find various styles ot writing*. Though a for- 
eTifrier has hardly any time to spend on ornamental or runninj^-hand 
he is often called upon to discuss or name tiie various modes of 
writing", on which account we here acid the designations of the six dif- 

ferent styies, 

1. 蒙書 

2. It 書 tai' " , 

3. 措書 'kai ,, , 

4. 行書 sliang- ,, , 
h. 草書 (tso ,, , 
6- 朱書 Sung',, , 

the fanciful style, or 象字 siin' tszt | r^cters!^ 

the plain, square characters used for writing- prefaces 

the pattern style. 

a stiff form of the running hand. 

the free running hand. 

elegant form of characters used in printing. 

Colloqvial Chinese. Verbs with certain svffixes. 
Though it would as yet be very imprudent for a student of the 
Chinese lung-uag-e to neglect the stndy of the written characters, as lie 
could not otherwise expect to exercise much influence among the edu- 
cated classes of China, there is sufficient ground for the hope, that a 
phonetic system will sooner or later fciipcrscde the present characters. 


Verbs with the Sf{fli.c of] or Ending ? •», Chii^ 住 , 

; m ― 

and lay tlio found^uiou of greater development and perspicuity of the 
vernacul \v tong'ue, ? js a medium of, communicating one's idetTs. 

Few verbs are used sing'ly. Some combine with words, whose mean- 
ing* differs greatly from their own. We would therefore call the first 
word the root, and the second its termination. Words alvrays combining 
with this latter form should be called Dksi/llabic words with, such a ter- 
mination or suffix. 

As this is a subject of considerable importance, upon which is de- 
pentling the future development, perfection, and scientific treatment of 
the laug'uaii'e, tlie foundatiou u]>on which will rest the whole weight of 
the possibility of reducing' the ideog'i*:tphic characters to a phonetic sys- 
tem, I have collected u considerable uuraber of phrases illustrative of 
what is here asserted. 

Verbs with the suffix of, or endmg in, chii? 住 . 

Tap, chii^ fTii; tP S§ 住塊 Hfe To tread on that ground. 

(Jvau chil^ (to ruin 
Tsam^ cliii^ 'ki yat, 
(Fan chii^ sz) ^houng- 
gT^ung chii^ yat) cli'ii^ 
<Fung chii^ mat) Jioi 

^Lau cliii^ ngoP kwok^ 
(Ku ehii^ ^pun 'kong 
'Se cliii^ ^cliBung' (chi 
^Cha cliii^ (clii pat) 
Chcukj cliii^ /i fuk, 
cYam cbii^ ^pui (tsau 
Shik, chi? 4iau ,m 

^Cli^iin cLli^ tui^ Jifii 
Tai^ chiV kin' mh' 
Tao^ chi? ^m;i ,cli6 
Tsoi〉 chii^ fo' mat, 
/Tan cliii^ ch;ui^ .fong 
^So clui" -uiuu bUwi^ 

望住 f 固天 To look at the heavens. 

主 多^^ Of man}^ years"" duration. 
暫 i [主幾 B To live there for a few days. 
分住四 鄉 To live separately in four villages* 
!^^!住 — *^ To live tog-ether in one place. 
封 住勿開 Seal it and let it not be opened. 
止 住未行 To stop walking-. 
留 住外國 Detain him abroad. 
居 住本港 He lives at our estuary. 
冩 住張紙 lie is writing a sheet of paper. 
擅 住枝筆 He holds a pencil in his Land. 
着住 衣月& To put on clothing. 
欽 住杯酒 To drink a cup (or glass) of wine- 
食住 口 姻 To smoke a puff of tobacco. 
ttftffiS Cany this umbrella. 

住乘 $S Carry a chair. 
穿 住對維 Put on a pair of shoes. 

To wear a cap or hat. 
坐住, !每車 To sit in a carriage. 
載 住貨物 

To store away poods. 
墩住 待房- To put goods in the goclowu. 
鎖住門 iJi Luck tlKit door. 



Verbs fi'ith the Siijllv of, or Endivfj in, Chi? fj£ 

(Kwan chu^ (kai chap^ 關 住街鬧 Bar the j^ate or barrier, 

sni TOuiid or besiege a city. 

^Shau chii^ jing clnii^ " "^住 營 3^ To guard or hold an tMicanipnient. 

chii^ t(V ,t'au ^^ilti&'^Sl To anclior at the ferry or laudinj^ 


To stop II]) a sewer, 
chii^ tu^ W 欄 fj^ 萍路 To obstruct the road. 

;i ung- chii' sli5' muk, 登 住數目 Put it to account, To keep an 

nccount. ' 

Tuk) chii' ko'K) lui^ 獨作 [^下 To live alone in the lower story. 
Knng^chii^lau shenng' ^ttffi_t To live tog-ether in the upper story. 
,Li'a cLii' noi^ ag-oP 連住 內夕卜 To connect the inner and outer 


Ki'ip, chii' 'leuno- jn'u 3^ 住雨邊 To pass on both sides. 
K:ik) cliii^ (Chung ,kun 隔住中 間 Partition it. 

To prevent [people from] passing 
and repassing. 

Kan' chii^ elicit, yap, 住出 To follow when g'oing out or com- 
ing- in. 

KiV cliii^ jts'i'ii hau- 顧住 前後 To reflect upon the past and future* 

Kan^ cliii^ (tso yau^ 近 住左右 To stay close to a person. 

(On chii^ ; man (sam 安住民 <iCl、 To pacify peoples minds. 

.Nu chii' tsSik, (ff 拿# 賊匪 To apprehend robbers. 

Tuk, cliiP sz^ tsut, 督佳 士 卒 To lead out troops. 

Cli'apj cliii^ ling' tsin' 插 住令箭 To stick the Emperors command 

on tlie back of an officer. 

To lead on troops. 

'Cli'e chii^ ,t'iu ; shing' 麵佳條 /裤 To haul a rope. 

To stop a cai-riag-e or cart. 

cM; ; hoi ; i ffiift^5 & To carry babies. 

Chap, cliii^ cbek, (sliau 執 住隻手 To seize one by the hand ; to shale© 


'Im cliii- jSht'ung- *nguu 住雙 I^P; To cover the eyes. 

Hit, cliii^ tsoP 'ts、 SjCftfejtt Stop here. 

】Ii% cliii^ 'shau 歇住手 To rest liora work. 

lii't) chii^ 'liau 歇住 P To be still, to stop eating-. 



起 to Else. 







; T'ii'i 


; To 















ffi 起 






拈 ,, 
祧 ,, 
n ,, 
優 ,, 






To think on, 

,, recollect ;, to remember. To call to mind. 
" do., to act, to make ; to compose. 

do., do., do. 
" copy. 

" sit down. 
" stand, to stand erect. 
" loan over (half standing). 
,, le.^p, to jump. 

" talce up with the finjrers, to carrv. 

" take up by the end of a'stick and fling away. 

,, carry fas a chair). 

" carry on a pole accross the shoulder. 

" carry on a pole between two. 

,• suspend, to bang* up. 

" take in the hand, to take up, 

,, take up a child from the ground. 

,, stir, to stir up. 

" tie up, to pull up to a beam as inon when 

" hand up ; to take up. 
" enwrap, to envelop.. 
,, fill, to fill up. 
,, store ; adorn. 
,, elect, to choose, to select. 
" seize ; to ap【>i'eh(mi3. 
" lock, to chain. 
" haul, to dra^. 
" annoy. 

,,, to wipe, to dust. 
" persne, to run after. 
" drink. 

" heap up, to pile up. 



Vc'rbs ending in Id ^ 

1 干 Mlii 

Po 11 nl (\ 1 n f li o n r1 

!• UUIU 丄 11 LllO 11 (1 11 U « 


yVt ,, 

" ascend, to mount j to avail of. 


rm " 

" roll up (as a screen). 

? s ,, 

" select, to clioose out. 

丄 sau 




" run, to hasten. 


wT " 

" count, to rGcou up. 


W\ " 

" pour out J to overturn. 

丄 ci 


" ij Lii&u J tu win IV, Lii gulu- Sliver ccc. i 

\ju. UKj 


,, startle, to recollect suddenly 

<r uu 


VE ,, 

" throw up, (cis a bull in n. gJiziic). 

tTv ,, 

" assist, to aid, to help up, when fallen down. 


" tiG^ to bandage* 


話 " 

,, speak, to speak oift, to tell. 


講 " 

" discourse on^ to converse, to narrate. 



" pull up ; to extirpate. 

^Kau ((n 

au) ,, 


" pull up a book ; to raise, as an anchor. 





" pare off, to lop off ; to make a hole in the 

U. 1 UUllU* 

" GFGctj to I'tUso (cis a standard )• 


" insert, to set in ; to thrust into (as a flag 


Stan ), 

, , 

,, complete ; to raise. 



,, collect ; to put away as clothing, when not 


m " 



;, take from ; to lift ; to draw out. 

丄' ik;) 

m " 

,, KICK. 

视 " 

" draw, to pnll up. 


丄!^ V 

究 ,, 

,, To lift up. 


戴 ,, 

„ carry, to wear. 



,, raise, to elevate. 


„ carry on tlie head, or top of a thing. 


Vt'i'bx cnduiij in 起, h'cuh, 名 |$, tb' 到 and To 询 . 

|t® To carry on the back ; to carry a child pick a pack. 
,, fw ,, ,, pull up, as a flag-. 
" 鞭 ,, ,, lash, to whip (as a horse). 

Fcj-fo ending in k'duk, 都. 

Mong V^kjS 省 P To lorg^efc. 

., do. 

才佳 " " refuse. 

" decIiDe, as an office; to refuse. 
" push away. 
,, throw away. 

" diminish, to substract : to abbreviate. 
,, .remove all. 

Kot allow one to decline an invitation. 
To dislike, to feel averse to. 
,, disdain, to complete and put away. 
" level. 

Verbs ending in tb、 到 • 
^到 To know. 

estimate, to reflect, to find out. 
send, to transmit. 

carry, to bring- or take to [a certain place.] 
carry; bj turns, 
fear, to be afraid of. 
reach with youv eyes. 
I'each with your bands, 
persue, to catch, to react, 
provide, or to guard against. 

^erbs ending in Hb 倒. 

ciVi M is almost always a termination of the perfect tense 

^^^:^::^:^::^^^^ - ― the 

; Ts'z 


















Verbs ending in and ch(ut) 出 

Kwai^ , 

jMln , 

Tso^ , 

'Ta , 

Yam* , 
'Ts'ing- . 

'Mai , 
Fnt, : 
Kii) , 
Tsok、 , 

Kwatj , 
Tit, , 

(m , 

; K-l , 

Jin , 

KiiV : 
Tsip, ; 

'to ^t'ln ha' 

得倒 天下 Has got the whole em))ire. 

,, pai' sslian 魏 倒拜神 He kneels down to worship the 


,, .clrong" shcung^ 目民倒 /^上 To be sleeping on the bed. 

4iiu 4u 

ts(ak;j cfi 
ch;W Song 
4b puu^ 
fo^ mat, 
tai^ jts^oi 
shil^ mukj 
yul、) sheic^ 
(kam (sha 
tso? ti^ 
lokj ^sliui 

Joi ^t'ai 
slii- ffi 
ku ii 
.sliii sun^ 

打 倒城嫵 
霸 倒炮臺 
捉 铜賊匪 

賃倒 淺]! # 
請 倒夥伴 
買 倒貨物 
發 倒大財 
鋸 倒澍木 
鑿 倒五石 
掘 倒金砂 
跌 倒在地 
吹倒 落;" 
企 倒來睇 
歸 i 倒 S 非 

一倒 p5 哩 
接 倒羞信 
纖; 到艱難 

be seated in a sedan. 

have reduced a city. 

Lave seized upon a fort. 

Lave arrested a criminal. 

have rented a. g-odown. 

Lave got a partner. 

have purchased goods. 

liave inade much money. 

have sawed a tree. 

have Gtit a gem. 

have dug for gold. 

have fallen to the groun^l- 

P^#J jg^7jC Blown into the water. 

花簡 To have made a flower g-arden. 

" have raised one's self to look. 

" confound right and wrong, 

r have called coolies. 

" Lave received a letter. 

have qarned nothing' but 
trouble ; to have bi'ougiit 
one's self into trouble. 



Fcr6s cndmq in ch(u" 
cli^ut, -man ^cbeung- 傲 [Ij 乂 草 To con^pose an essay. 

'ho kaP 想出 好計 

、 _ %m^M 

^liaii .U'ung- 發出 口穩 
young- seung^ 影 tlj 襟甜 

invent (originate) a good 

write out some news. 

tlis^-ibute provisions (m-, 

reflect a true image^ to 
take a jUiotoarai-h. 

discourse ou ductr* 


Verbs ending in ck'u t, jij and Id? 

(Sham cli(ut) jts'ing- sjau 



(ping ma 
^mun 'liau 

ts'uk, jtsong-. 

赛 Hi tra 由 To find out the cause of an affair. 
帶 出 兵馬 ,, lead out troops. 

,, run outside. 

expel (drive out) idlers, 
discover vag'abonds, 
find out stolen property. 

走 出門口 
逐 出閒人 

查 出匪徒 

锼 出賊誠 

LtV ch^it, sz' SHl?^^ To divulge secrets. 

Ts62 ch(ut) hi) ; meng 造出 器 iSl To make or invent articles used in 

worship or eatinj:" &c. 

Mui^ ch^ut, fo) mat, 賣 出貨物 To sell goods. 

Other words now indefinitely floating amonj^ the confused or be 
"U'ildei'ed masses^ would form prefixes of dissyllabic or trisyllabic word s 

; Fan liiP 
(Fan ^clnin ^t^au 
,"Fan liii) (kwai 翻去 | 

Ch'ut) ,k^i 

Ch'ntj Joi 

CWt) yam^ 




抬 ,, 






帶 ,, 







劉生 To revive^ to come to life ag-ain. 

专彫】 土 ^ * 
tl'^1-?r " return. 

,, do. 

" return home, 
" marvel, to be surprised at. 
" come oat or forward. 
" let (as a house), 
" take u walk. 
" yciieme^ to plan. 

Verh ternnnati'ug in hit 

To descend. 
" caiuy to. 
" return. 
" tivinsfor. 

" bring to, to carry away. 
,, move to (or away), 
" carry to ( do. ). 
" sail to ( do, )• 

Hi It 


Verbs ending in hii , 

To move to. 
" pluck up. 
" go ont. 
" enter. 

" expel, to pursue. 

" go to. 

" resort to, 

,, fly away. 

,, jump off. 

" lend. 

" decoy, to kidnap. 

" carry on the slioiikler, 

" carry on the arm. 

" push away. 

" scrape off. 

" expel, to drive out. 

" take off, 

" sweep off. 

" pare, 

" dust. 

" sweep. 

" wipe. 

" clean off. 

" dig' out. 

" follow, 

" depart. 

" contain. 

" pass over. 

,, carry. 

" let go. 

" take away. 

„ send off, 

" rob. 

" run away. 

J hii) 

Patj ,, 

CW\i% ,, 

Yap^ ,, 

^Ivon " 

(Iloi •,, 

sMiii ,, 

(Fi ,, 

T-'iu^ ,, 

Ts6^ " 

^Kwdi " 
T'ok, ,, 

'Wan ,• 

<TAi " 

Kwatj ,, 
Chuk, ,, 

(iva ,, 

rut, ,, 

Seukj ,, 

Fat, ,, 

So' ,, 

Mut) " 

P'it) ,, 
Kwat, -, 

Jvan ,, 

^Hang " 
Tsoi' ,, 

K、vo) " 

Fong) ,, 

e:p " 

Kip, " 

(Tsau ,, 

K 拔出 入起開 t 飛跳 借拐托 挽推刮 逐取縫 创拂梳 秣搬掘 跟行載 過杠放 t 寄^ 连 


Verba eiuUtiy in hil 




pack up. 


前 ,, 


forward, to advance. 







5 主 

m ,, 


be invited. 










cany on the back. 




dismiss, to degrade. 



per sue. 




snatch away. 




carry away. 


take to. 


偷 " 





break up. " 


n4 ,, 


call away, ♦ 




move to. 












carry away. 



翻 " 

return, to go away from. 





send to, to accompany one. 





draw, to drag. 





Verbs ending in mdi , 
撮埋 To abbreviate, to cartaih 



1 : 

shut lip. 

put up J lay up. 
bar, to lock up. 

mix, to ihiow into confusion, 
fill up. 


Verbs cndiug in wdi 埋. 

£ I Jang 








) pick up. 
" get aside, 
" stand aside. 
" sit by. 

" sleep wif li, or close to. 
" pull away. 
" wrap up , 
" take away . 
" put away. 

" store away, to preserve. 
" preserve. 
" store lip. 
" accumulate. 
,, twist. 

,, connect with, to string' together. 

" force one into one's plan ; to leave no 
way of escape. 

" collect into one, to make one lump of it. 

" tie up. 

" carry aside. 

" heap up. 

" pusb aside. 

" give all. 

,, keep. 

" join together, , 

" close, 

" put aside, 

,, fold up. 
Tog-etlier with. 
To put away.' 

,, mix with. 

" put closo. 

,, firiisb. 

執 行企坐 騸拉包 拈灘收 存貯積 絞串起 團 绑抬堆 推俾扮 合扯祷 擺 樞拍造 


Verbs endin(j m mdi 埋. 



(Ch 、― 









(丄 i 







" press upon. 

" " give up ; to yield. 

,• " gain all. 

" " save [to leave over). 

" " grasp. 

" ,, shore up. 

" " lean upon. 

" " call together, to assemble. 

,, " get the whole. 

" " conceaL , 

,, ,, anchor. 

„ " sweep. 

、, " wait together. 

" " gather. 

" " encroach. 

" " hide away. 

" " run fiw^jr, 

" " put ill together. 

" ,, 

" " contract, to shrink, to ciuldle up. 

" " live with. 

" " put things in their proper places. 

,, ,, put in, 

" " clasp. 

" " roll up. 

" " lean upon. 

" " unite. 

" " get the whole. 

" ,, collect together. 

" " obtain hj theft. 

Verbs Terminating in J.oi to come, 

Aoi 寫來 To write. 
,, 抄 ;, " copy. 

i;^- 讓贐 剩欖撐 凭叫得 藏灣掃 等激霸 躱走兼 澄縮住 5S 入挾 捲挨聨 機撥偷 


Verbs ending in Jot. 


To bring'. 




carry (on a pole accross 

; T'oi 

Ctll I y i iJOt W tJoU L \ V U f . 



I'O W 






f'fiff 1 1 O'pf 

■10L、11, \i\J 4^ Cy L» 











pole (a boat). • 









send (to have received). 






JUl 111* Ul ij U If* 



rotuvn • 


'」 n 


CUIIlc. LU cinUl UciC/IX* 












buy on credit. 





make presents, or bring' 











contain, to store. 



rJi rases shovmg the use oj Verbs tcvmuialing in Jot 
'Se 'hb M U 妤來 To write nicely. 


FhruHcs aJiowbu/ the use of Verbs ending in Joi. 
'Seunj5 (clian Joi 想眞來 To consider thoroughly. 

Hi £(11 Xtli 

击 Mfe " 

/t^s 八 " 

come at this time. 

(Kon (kail 

赶 s ,, 

1)6 in hurry. 

M* 侧 ,, 

put on one side. 

Tnno2 %4 

满在 " 

place it erect. 

hold it fast. 

丄 S\J VV (111 

4^ 縛 ,, 

sit down safely, to be firmly seated. 

cTcHU (lli 

-L o»Lt 1X1 

去叙 ,, 


(Full ^chiin 

iSl^ ,, 

turn thing's over. 


行上 ,, 

come up. > 

卞 去,, 

come down. 

(Piin yap, 

微 A ,, 

move inside. 

(Lo cli'ut, 

ii 出 " 

bring out. 

Kiu^ ; kHi 

n4|g ,, 

call liim. 

,Ivan -ng'o 

ffg^ ,, 

follow me ; to come with one. 

使人 ,, 

send a man. 

send a letter. 

^Chui t6〕 

M 到 ,, 

reach or obtain bv persuit. 

ftfa ,, 

liave obtained by I'obbei'y; 

put tbiiig'S aright. 

^Chong' (chca 

put thiugs in wrongly. 

Safj 'sun 

set things loosely. 

^Fan Jioi 

分闘 ,, 

divide^ to separate. 

Tit, lolc. 

跌嫁 " 

fall down. 

, 顿埋 ,, 

sail to. 

^Chirig- ting^ 

整定 ,, 

have tilings ready. 

催住 " 

press, to constrain, to liurry. 

奄確 ,, 

examine tliorougbly. 

(Tim cheukj 

1» ,, 

Yv^ht it up. 

打寞 ,, 


拈齊 " 

bring' tog^ether. 

鳴 i tak) 

買 得,, 

obtain hy purchase. 

Yu^ -man hale, Evening. JXight. 


Defect of Uu- best Dlctioaanj. The learned not always the popular men. 

The precediuL^' itnplos wiii suliicu to iuaicute the way, vvuich will 
】pfi(i to an intelligible phonetic language. If a ruler as intelligent as 
Kang'ln could be imluc (! d to appoint a commission of three or four lueu in 
eacli province, to classify the verbs accoriling to their prefixes and suffixes, 
to make n collection of tho compoumis of nouns and other parts of socech, 
to have hooks written with this newly arranged material and iiitrod- 
duced into the schools, ― one g-eneratiou would be sufficient to ojjeri the 
eyes of the learned ond to convince them of tbe benotit the nation imi6t 
derive from a phonetic system, whicli men aud women could ac'' 丄 iiii'e 
within tlie sliort time of a couple of uiontiis. 

The sentences which I have collected, are constantly on the tong-ue 
of til** natives, and I am sure, will he known to most foreign scholars of 
the Chinese langnag-e. But, how many persons use tlxem in their daily 
conversalion ? Very few indeed ; and such as do, do so perhaps twice, 
、vhen a native, speaking; to his country men, woukl use them ten tiiuoci. 
Were we to look into *Dr, Williams' Dictionary aud select all the com- 
binations of tbe class of which I have given examplos, we should liurdlv 
find 20 per cent of tbeni. " 

As Dr. Williams' Dictionary is by far the Best that has ever been 
piiblislied ill Chinese, and yet contains so small a pei'cent::g'e of tbe com- 
mon colhujuinl, need we then wont lor ut the constant cry over the diffi- \ 
culty of tilt! Chinese language ? ! More i Ijou 50 per ceat of wliat scholars ' 
learn is not'current colloquial ; hence they talk to the poor and iyiioraut 
jind are not understood, not because they cannot read and write woi'ks in 
the Chine::>e lan^ua^'e, but because tliey never assembleti around the h re- 
place, where father, mother and cliiMrt'ii open their hearts unro^ti'aiaerlly 
and converse in a tongue, which will give to future g'enerations the ma- 
terial for n polished and intelHu-ible vernaoulor. 

This convictiou wliicli has ibrced itself upon my mind as often as I 
liave sat among a gioup oi uutive iueu, women and childreii, 工 cau no 
longer conceal. Profound Chines.^ scholars, who are all the year round 
sitting' with a loquacious teacher, who almost knows vvluit they meau to 
Si;3' before tliey have tjxpi'essed half du'ii' ideas, have frequently sneered 
nt the idea^ that the (Jliinese langimg^e could ever be reduced to a phone- 
tic system and that the icleoj^Taphic characters could bo dispensed with, 
But couid they ever hold easy converwution with an uneducated native ? 
I frankly declare they could not ; and during the last war we hud an 
instance of a firstrate scliolar of the Cliineso lang*uay-e having to giva the 
]n-ecedence to a neopliite, a novice iu the Mandarin dialect, because the 
learned man could hardly talk 'vitli any body but liis teacher. 

There is another feature ot the Chinese colloquial requiring' to be 
pointed cut. Certain words, like the English verh to get, pass chniceloii- 
like throngh the language, meaning to strike, to buy, to extract, ro oj)en, 
by &c., mid are frequeatly heard in very vulgar or common colloqnial. 

e. 'mai -mai, to purcliase rice, woiilvl to the enr be almost tantoiogy, 
the Chinonian substitutes "^ta to strike, for to jinrclnise. As snoh idiomatic 
peculiurilies are frequeiitly met with^ I would here add neai ly 130 sen- 


Examples of ike use of Id, to strike. 

tences with 'ta, to strike, as another illustration of the g'l'eat difference 
between the written style and the colloquial. 

Examples of the use ofHd 打 to strike. 

To grit the teeth. 
" dre?s. 
" pli、it the cue. 

,, walk. To come l)y land, - 
,, eat rice without seasoning-. 
" move. 
,, spy out. 
" mend. 

" cheat. To practice usuit- 
" sleep on tho ground. 
" lean upon. 
" reward. 

" save (rescue) one. 

(Ta ngir, (ch(i' 


"- pan^ 


', (― 


" 16^ Jloi 

,, 路來 

" tsing- sliikj 

,,淨 食 

,, tiing- 


,, t^iim^ 

" 探 

,, ^ching 


,, (p((、) 

" 地鋪 


,, 'shoung' 


,, kai? 


" fat, 


,, client, ^ngan 

,, 出銀 

,, Siii? 

,,g 、- 

" ting^ ^cliii 1^ 

" 定王意 

" ^li 

,, m 

,, (kiin ^fd 

,, 官莳 

,, Jiun (sz 

,,官 司 

» jriii 


" Jjai ^clieung 


" 絲蓋 

,, (Sliu 

" 書皮 

,, ^nau 

,, 叙 

,, 鈕耳 


" chui^ 

:: 響 

" ,fa 


" ^tsai 



, pay the costs of a Imv suit. 
, calculate, to reckon. 
, have come to a resolution* 
, manage. 

summon one. 
, do. ' 

force one to write an order for money, 
' sole shoes, 
' make the bed. 

bind a book. 
' sew on a button. 
' make a button hole. 
' fix the price. 
• pay debt in kind. 

g'et (seek) flowers, 


makii an estimate, to malce a sketch. 


Examples of the use of'td^ to strike. 

o make a Imtton. 

, make robes. 

y extract a tooth. 

, purchase rice. 

, g'o to the market. 

' come by chair. 

, give a riddle to guess. 

' gness a riddle, that is written on 

gape, to yawn. [a lantern. 

' do. 
, wear coarse stuff. 

, do. 
, do. 
, break. 
, smash. 

, split ; to open by force. 
, break like glass. 
, turn over things. 
, beat flat. 
、 level. 

, let fall. • 

sink a ship. 
make dirty, to soil, 
take off one's clothing', 
open the door. 
a})ply a j)laster oi' ointment, 
muke a chunam floor, 
nmke a threshing lioor. 
, draw water, 
strike fii'e, 

do. • 

, extinQ'uisIi fire. 

cTYi ko〕 kit, t' 

,, S0k、 " 

" ^mai " 

,, ^shi " 

,, ^kiu Joi " 

,, mai^ (mi^) " 

,, ftang' mai^ ,, 

" hiim^ liy ,, 

" muk^ lu- ,, 

,, (ts6 " 

" ^fan ftsz ,, 

,, p^an^ thii^ ,, 

" liak, (cli^i ,, 

,, lau^ ,, 

,- sui〕 ,, 

,, pCQ) ,, 

" (1 气' " 

,, ^cliiin ,, 

" cpin ,, 

" cp'ing ,, 

" t'ut, ,, 

,, ; cli(am ^shxin ,, 
,, lo^ s<Y 

,, ch^kj mok, ,, 

,, fboi un ,, 

,, (k6 yeuk, ,, 

,, (fui (sM ,, 
,, shekjcWOrch^eung' 

,, Cshiii M 

,, Ho ,, 

TV 3 ^ 

結 來 謎露露 滋躉癡 船 剝 r:f 砂 火火 

瘦索 牙米市 轎謎燈 嘁擘龃 噴噴吃 斕碎破 廁轉扁 平脫沉 赤開 瞥灰石 水火复 M 


Examples of the vse of Ha. to .strike. 

'Tk shek, 
,, cOgan fSz fu- 
" chekj ciigan ^hiin 
" gtnin (仏 
,, fit) 

,, sin) 

Jo ckfi 
,, ^clii ai 
I ,, (tc'm ^kau 
,, tsiu^ 
,, ^ch^ai 
,, h? 
" gWang* ^sLau 
" pui) csliau 
" pak^ chong^ 
" fan- ^ts^an 
" (tsau ^fung 
" ^shau Cheung) 
,, (ftuig p6- 
" fSai pak, 
,, cTigau ^t^ai 

,, min- 
" cyan 

^lYi (sheting 
,, ^cliung' 

g'M kau' 'k'ix (t(i 

,, ^sliaii ^oheung 
" yat) ^chuiing 

才 A stone cutter. 

" 銀師 1^ A master silver smith. 

" ^^^^[^ To make a silver ring' for the neck. 

" " ^^花 To cleanse cotton. 

,, 鐵 A black smith. 

,, ^ To ling the bell. 
,, ,, tune an intrament. 
" ^^鼓 " beat the gorjg\ 

" 糸氏) J 卑 " play at curds. 

"天 ii ,, do. 

,,醮 " perform mass. 

,,齋 > ,, clo. 
" 把每 " play a comedy, 
" 1^黃^^^ ,, foi'g'e. 

" 』j ^手 ,, eng-age or induce by presents. 
" 白卞童 A pilferer; a thief. 

To live like a parasite. 
A beg'gar. 

To commit onanism. 
Boisterous weather. 
Gentle N. W. wind. 
A game. 

To feel the pulse. 
" paint one's face. ^ 

" strike some body. 
" strike, 
" wound. 

" strike so as to occasion swelhnf^. 
P§ '够厄 打 Unable to light him. 
打唔倒 Not hit it. 

" 手掌 To give one a blow ivritli the hand. 
" ""^ "巴掌 A slap of the hand. 


:,〜 人 
K 打 

t) 傷 

,, m 


,, (tsui ^pa 
,, t(V cL^ut; but 
(Pin ^tu 

cTa csz jvan men 
^Soung Ha 

,, ^ku cfo 
" dieung- 
,, tP (fong' 
,, eying" 
" (shii 

,, glv'^iin 
Kuii^ (t;\ (sz fu- 

,, /i ,t^o 
,, k/iTig^ 

,, Iceukj kwat) 
,, A\ 

,, ^wo 

,, lip) 

,, ^15 ^fu 

,, ts'^eukj -fliu 

,, 鶴鳥 

,, 工 To 

9> ^tsenng' 




,,翻 m 

,, ftin ^to 

,, 尖 To 

. 拱 " 

Ex'ainpl,-s of the use of'ta, to strike. 

:顯 酵條 痕— To flog one until it leaves 
打嘴巴 To box one's mouth. [marks. 
) " 到出皿 Tc strike one uutil the blood runs out* 
鞭打 To whip one. 
打^ To kill one. 

.. 祐人命 To kill one. 
相打 To stiike one '(mother. 
打交 To fight. 

" j$0C To fight (civil war). 

" 仗 To fig-ht (general war). 

,, 地方 

To invade a territory. 
,, To gain a victory. 
,, 車 BiJ ,, suffer a defeat. 
,, M " do. 
„ ,, box. 

教打 師傅 The boxing master. 

"I'M To cane one. 
,, 'JiH To discbarge a g-un. 
" 飛 $S To throw slimo- stones. 
,, 逕 *打^ ^坐 To commit hig-bwny robbery, 
,, do. ' 
,, 明 火 To commit burglary ; to surprise villages. 
" 脚骨 To commit highway robbery. 
,, 魚 

To g'o a fishing', 

g*o a hunting. 
To go a tiger hunting-, 
,, shoot birds, 
labor for wag*es. 
row. ' 
To wheel about. 
,, turn about madly. 
To wedge in. 

niiiko an obeysance. 


Orthography . 

To reduce the Canton dialect to a simple^ phonetic system, has been 
a subject of considerable discussion among the junior students of the 
Chinese lang-uag-e ; and the different modes of spelling show, that as yet 
few have agreed ou that point. This diversity is in a great measure 
owing to the lack or, a comprehensive, practical aiind, able to look beyond 
the few years of his own existence ; but no less to a disinclination to 
mnke a few coni:essions to a rival and to sacrifice one's own preconceived 
opinion to better counsel, having- for its aim the interest of the less 
iiistructecl and less talented of the native and foreign students. But we not 
luifrequently find that the g'l'eatest stumbling' black in the way of a per- 
fect iig'roement is the fkct that men make it a matter of Convenience : ― 
Englishmen will write according to the pronunciation ef their own lan- 
g'Uiige (if there is such a thing as a general rale) ; the French will follow 
theirs, t&c. So long' as they write for their private use only, not much is 
lost to others or to themselves ; but when they present the results of tlieir 
labour to the public, matters stand quite differently. As public men 
sent out for the extension of science and civiliation, they should study 
simplicity J should analize every sound and represent it ;, as much as 
possible, by simple vowels and consonants, or at least by such diacritical 
marks as might save future generations from the scandal of spelling -as 
many now too frequently do amongst the lower classes of England^ France, 
Geruiany, and the United States of America. They should above all 
f;tithfully represent the essential points of the various dialects of Chin;" 
such as are the tones and aspirates, or give no pronunciation at all. For 
it is laizcli better to leave the student of (he Chinese language to himself, 
than to misguide him by an assumed autliority, and to induce him to 
I>eisue a course of study which he afterwards, perhaps when too late, 
reg'iets, when health and other circumstances may not allow him to 
retrieve his lost ground. 

A Standard Alphabet, such as has been proposed by Professor Lep- 
siiis is a f^'reat desideratum in the newly opened countries of the far East, 
and we should bave adopted it ;, hnd we not, a dictionary now in general 
use by the students of this dialect, the orthography of which is so simple 
ill at it will not soon be superseded by a better one. The only defects of 
Dr, Williams' orthog-rapliy are the use of the U to represent tliree^ the 
E two sounds, and th:it he requires a diacritical mark to express the 
broad sound of the diphthong ; li. The u should be represented by the o ; 
the e by the a; the ai by the ei ; and the ai by the ai. 

Hnving in tlie present work strictly followed the ortliogTapliy 
adopted by Dr, Williams, I will here add iiis sysfem, as exlii])ited in the 
table p.p. XVI and XVIJ in the lutvoductiou to his "Tonic Dictionary." 

1. a as in quota ; 

2. a as in father j 

3. e as in men ; 

4. c as in sny ; 

5. i as in pin ; 

XXX \ 11 


6. 1 as i 

7. o as in long-, lord ; 

8. o as in so, hoc : 

9. u as l)ull ; 

10. u as in school ; 

11. U as in Giite ; 
u as in turn ; 
ai in while ; 
ai as in aisle, aye j 
au as in now ; 


16. au as iu howl (only pronounced broader ami lonp'cr) • * 
17- eu as in Capernaum ; 

18. iu as in pew ; ♦ 

19. oi as in boy ; 

20. ui as in Louis ; 

21. ui as in cooing ; 

22. sz) this is an imperfect vowel sonncl, unknown in European lan- 
guages ; if in pronouncing' the word dizzy, the two letters di be changed, 
to s, this sound will be made, 

23. ,! n or hm, is spoken with a cleared mouth, like a voluntary half cough. 

24. ,! ig' is a nasal sound, mado by stopping the nose when it is spoken. 
The consonants need no illustration, as they are uniformly pronounced as 
in Eng'lish : ― 

ch as in church ; 
f as m fife ; 
h as in have ; 
k as in king' ; . 
kw as in quality ; 
1 as in lame; 
m as in main ; 
r\ 'as in nun ; 

The o.hove comprise all the vowels, 
the Cnnton dialect. 
Tones and Aspirates see p. p. 1 and 2 

ng as 111 sing' ; 
p as in pap ; 
s as in sea. ; 
sh as in shut ; 
t as in title ; 
ts as in wits j 
w as in wiug ; 
y as in yard. 

diphthongs and consonants, found in 


Grammar of the Ghinesr Langvaoe, 

Difference of Intonation. 

Any person anxious to acquire the Chinese language as it spoken 
by the natives, should acquaint himself: ― 

1. ― With tlie tones ; 

2. ― With the aspirates ; and 

3. 一 With tlie vowo] sounds. 

1, THE Tones. 
The Mandarin or Court dialect distinguishes 5 tono? ; 
The Halcka Oj and 
The Punti 8. - 

1. In the Court dialect they are expressed without any modulation 
of the voice ; are marked as represented in tlie following square, and re- 
peated according to the number opposite each tone, 

3 8 






£P(ing' (sliing ( marked 1 on the left below ), is the 

The 2p 鼙 
simple even tone ; 

The 上 聲 sliang- (shing ( marked 2 ) is the upper tone, and h 

always uttered with a sLrill voice ; 

The 去 聲 k'ii) (shing (marked 3) is the departing tone ; and 

The 聲 jih, (shmg, (marked 4 ) is the entering- tone. In its 
pouthefn variations it always terminates abruptly ; but ends in a long 
vowel in Chili, Sliansi &c., &o. 

A lower (or fifth) tone is recognised in the cP'ing (shing' only. 

2. More modulation of the voice is observed in the Hakka dialect ; 
but the intonation differs so much from the Punti, that those who wish to 
■ acquire both, must take great care not to confound them. . 

The tones of tlie Hakka dialect are represented in the following- 







3 C 



and are called 

3. KT .shing 

4. Sliong' nyip, <shing. 

1. Shong' ^p'ing filing 

2. Shong-' (Shing 
A hovizonts.1 stroke being added to the liook of the p'ing and nyip 

sliing:, they represent the lower tones, as seen in the preceding square. 

°Accovdiiig' to the modulation of the voice . 
tlio k'i shing- of the Hakka resembles the h'hjh p'ing- shing ot the i^unti ; 
tlie shong ,, ,, ?, ,, ,, 
the p'ing ,, " ^ " ,二 

Note— 1 When a Chinese is anxious to ascertain the tone of a word, 
■ he always commences with the p'ing shing, then passes over to the 
f^hang (P. sheung ; H. shong), k'u and jih,, on ^vhicU account they 
iu'c often enumerated in the manner represented m the square. 

Grammar, or the Chinese Language. 


3. The tones of the Punti dialect are pronounced, 

2. ^Sheung' ^shiug 

Upper Tones 

1. 上^^ Shcung- cp^ing- (Shing 

2. 上 ,, ^sheung' " 

3. 上去 " hu> 
4- 上入 " yap; 


3. nii) (Shing and 

4. Yap, (sliing- 


• Lower Tones. 

1. 下平 sp'ing- (sliing 

2. 卞上 " 'sheung ,, -'2 

3. 下去 ,, (htt, 
4'卞71 " yap 


^he cp'ing (shing is uttered with a peremptory voice, e. q. Go ! 
The ^sLeung- .shing- or rising tone is uttered with an interrogative mo- 
dulation oi the voice, e. g-. Is it nice ? Is the weather fim', ? 

The liu' (shing' is the optative or wish form, e. g. Do love me. 
• The yapj ,, tei'minates in the Punti and Hakka dialects alvrays 
in a p, t or k ; hence it is easily distinguished. 

The 1. 2. & 3. tones of the Punti are nearly represented in the fol- 
lowing scaie. f, 

High tones ^ 9 p 6 
Lovr tones Uffl ^ _ g ^ ~ Q 


How are tlie four tones called ? 
個四聲 叫傲" 名呢 Kc^sz' ,shing kiu= tso^ mat, cmeng- (ni. 
They ai-e called cp'ing-, 'slieung, (hii) and yap, sliing-. 
^^斗做平上去;\略 tso^ .p'ing-, ^sheung, hu\ 

Mark the upper tones f/^ 個上 四聲 'Tim ko^ slieung-^ sz= ^shing 
Mark the lower tones, 個 下四聲 (Tim k。) La^ sz) (shing 
What tone has this character ? 
呢個字 係&野 —聲呀 (Ni tsz; hai^ mat, =ve (shing a). 
Has it the high or low tone ? 

係上 或# 下聲 

Rear! these characters with me. 

同我讀 呢箇字 ; T'ung 'ngo tuk, (ni ko; ts&' 
High Tones, 
Ch'in,(eWn,eWn',diit ,魅 展戰柝 

blanket; to unroll; to fight; to break 
(K"m, (kiim, Mm), kap ,緘减 g 申 ^ seal; to contract; a min'or; armour. 

Low Tones, 

J/m, -lin, lin' lit, 連] E 隼練歹 ij to connect, to remove ; to select ; to arrange. 
,Wan :、, W ^vhU 云 允蓮滑 To say ; to grant ; to revolve ; si— ery 
Aspirated words seldom have the Jm}/ier tone in the ^p'hig shine- or 
the loircr tone m the M, sh—. This peculiarity in the Punt/ is worth 
noticing;, as it vail considerably assist the student's memory. 


Grammar of the Chixese Language. 

2. Aspirates. 3. Vowel Sounds • 

How the tones frequently change the meaning of words, may be 
seen from the followins: examples. 

fU An interrogative 

, particle ; ^ f ^Wai, to do ; to be; r-j* j* 'Ho good. 

to hate ; 局 \ Wai) on account of. >X ( Ho' to love. 

Ok, bad, wicked. 

A glance into Dr. Williams' " Tonic Dictionary " will convince the 
student of the necessity of paying strict attention to the pronunciation 
of tbe aspirates. 

(TYim 担 
Tap. # 
T6) 到 

fiMi 齋 

to carry 
" answer 

arrive at 
,, oppress 
,, abstain from 




to covet 
a pagoda 
to vomit 
a prince 
a commissioner 

In the pi'oceding examples the sound and quantity of the vowels 
are the same, the tones are also identical, the distinction of meaning' 
being" conveyed by the aspirates. 

3. The Vowel Sounds. 

The following* examples differ in the sound of the vowels, by which 
the difference of meaning is conveyed to the ear. 


Narrow or Common Sound. 


2. Broad Sound 

a pass, a 


a bracelet 

an unopened flower 

to teach 

to strangle ' ,― 

Ak, 握 ,, grasp Ak, 厄 

(Am " cover witli the kind 'Am 
Kau' „ save to rescue Kau' ^ - 

3. Difference in the quantity of Vowels. 

Short Sound. Long Sound. 

<Sam i\j> the heart <SaDi 三 three 

,Kam 金 gold metal (I"im 監 to inspect 

Proper attention paid to these distinctions at tlie commencement 
of study, will enable the student to avoid many errors so frequently fallen 
into bj persons unwilling to follow the advice of experienced scholar!?. 

4. Phrases. 
4. Is this word aspirated or not '? 

呢 個字有 氣有呢 (Ni ko) tsz; ; yau h? 'mo ,m. 
How is this word pronounced ? 
S 檨讀呢 個字呢 'Tlmyeung^ tuk, (ni W tsz; (ni. 
It kau' in Pimti, 本 地 讀教 Punti' tuk, kau\ 


Grammar of the Chinese Language. 

Phrases. Dialectical Difference. 

And tliis chcracter ? 呢 個字呢 (Ni ko' tSZ- (111. 

It is read kau' 我讀教 -Ngo tuk, k^u\ 

What difference is tliere in the sound ? 個 聲音驟 分別呢 

Ko) (Shing (yam (tim (fan pit, (ni. 

The difference of sound is in the A, 

個亞字 音不同 ko) 4) tsz^ jam pat, ,t'ung-. 

By kail' cyan I rescue a man from peril. 

我 牧人出 於危險 ^Ngo kau> cyan cVut) ^n^ai 'him. 

By Mu) rvan I instruct men how to act- 

我教人 fi^i 襟行爲 'Ngo k^u^ jan Him yeung^ s^^ang cwai. 

4. Dialectical Difference. 

1. The written Chinese being ideographic aod merely intended for 
the eye, there is no need for long' words of diversified sounds, in order 
to convey the meaning- to tlie mind. Hence the rule, " sppak as you 
correctly write, and lorite as you correctly speaTc," is in no way applica- 
ble to the written Chinebe language of books. The student, therefore, 
should be careful what characters he commits to memory, and should 
always ask the teacher to write down for him the nompound used in the 
colloquial, without wliidh be cannot possibly make himself intellig-ible. 
With the exception of Dr. Williams' " Tonic Dictionary of the Canton 
Dialect ,, there is not a single work containing such a collection of com- 
pounds used in conversation as a student might commit to memory 
without reference to a competent teacher. Besides the necessity of 
learning compounds great care should be taken to ascertain the parti- 
cular word used in the dialect we wish to acquire, as also the peculiar 
construction (jf Thus in treating the Chinese language as if 
the ideographic characters did not exist, and by paying- strict attention 
to the respective idioms, w e soon discover that the various dialects of China 
differ as much from each otiier as G hi* man does from English, Dutch 
Swedish, Danish and other cognate tongues. 

2. Examples of Dialectical Difference, 

I do not see [it] or 
I cannot see 

Will you go 
Go! • 




(T'ai s'lo kin'. 


K(on> /m tau'. 



K'un' puh, kien . 


你去 唔去呢 

-Ni liii' c'm hiV (m 



-Ni hP £,m. 


你 去不去 

-Ni k'iT pub, k'ii'. 






'Tseu ! 

GraiMmar of tit£ Chinese Language' 

2 Examples of Dialectical Bifferevce. Compounds. 

1 do not know 

Compounds are. ― 

1. Descriptive ; 

2. Explanatory ; 

我 唔知到 



s^Ng'o /m (chi t6\ 
^Ngai s'm (ti. 
^Wo pull, (Chl. 

3. Synonymous ; 

4. Syuiphonious. 

1. They are mostly of so stereotype a character as to be quite unin- 
^IHgible if transposed. The only analogy we have of this kind in the 
Eng-lisli language is in certain proper-names of places. The sentence, 
3.g^ He comes from Norfolk, would lose its g*eogTapliical signification and 
bence hecome unintelligible, were we to say, He comes from the Folk of 
the North, because the historical origin of the compound has been for- 
gotten by the people. 

Examples of Descriptive Compounds. 
A. brickmaker 擧 瓦 瓦 I^^I^ 傅 (Chiinfng^ (sz, fu^ lit: A master of bricks & tiles. 
A. bricklayer 泥水 師傅 c^'ai (slnii ,, ,, clay and water. 

S_ carpenter 木匠 自币傅 Muk, tseung^ ,,\vorkmansliipinwood. 
k weaver 糸||禾南自币^[尊 Cliik, ^p6 ,, " weaving- cloth. 

A. spy glass 千里鏡 (Ts^n "li king), lit : a glass which enables us to 

see one thousand miles. 

2. Examples ofExplana 巧 iX'Qs 卿哪逸 5; 

Brother, Brethren, 乂 i 弟 (Hing, tai- Jit: elder & younger brothers, brethren. 



鄉妹 (Tsz W- 

女昏 ^因 <Fiin jan lit: female and mnle connections, i.e. 
to form such. 

^^^^ Ts'an ts'ik, lit :relalioiis contracted by marriage. 
子玄' (Tsai or 'Tsz -nii- lit: boys and girls, 
or 兒 (Ying Jioi or jing A lit : female and male in- 
fants, or babies. 
Sir, teacher 先生, Sin (shang lit : First-born. 

A youth 後生 Hau^ ,, Late or after-born. 

Surgery 卜科 Ngoi' io ,, outward [practice of] medicine. 

3. Examples of Synonymous Compounds. 
To examine 查察 cCh'a, cli'dt, both meaning the same. 
Fulfilment p,||,Ying im'- ,, " 

To try MM Shi) Vni' to try, test &c. 


Grammar of the Chinese Language. 


Com potfv ds. Classifiers. 

To hear 聽聞 .T'ing cm an, both meaning' to Lear. 

To see 蹄見 (T'ai kia' ,, ,, see. 

4. Examples of Symphonioiis characters used in Compounds. 

To see 骨豊. 見 'T'ai kin). 體 't'ai, body, stands here for (t'ai to se' 
These occur chiefly in popular literature and colloquial writing-s, ar 
fiiometirnes employed from ignorance, and sometimes for intelligibility. 

0. Many compounds in daity use may be transposed without alterin 
the sense, or becoming- unintelligible; but great care requires to be take 
ill such transpositions, lest the sense be lost. 

Examples of words that m.ay he transposed. 
To rejoice 崔 J^^^ ^Fun 'hi or (hi ^^im. 

To go and return 往來 -Wong Joi or ,loi =wong-. 
Examples of words that may not be transposed. 
Lord of a family, 家王 fku 'chii ; whilst 'chii ^ka means to rule a familj 
In the presence of jgj 前 Mln^ ^ts'in ; cts'in min^ means before us, opposit 
A wine cup VPI^ 'Tsau (p(ii ; whilst (piii (tsau means a glass of wine 
In conversation ^kung 'ta ^打] means to assault, to fight 
but (t4 (liung- [打工 ] to labour foi* wages; ^kung ,15 [功 勞] mean: 
merits ; but ;化 (kung [勞 工] toil, toilsome labour. 

7 . Phrases. 

Call the bricklayer 叫泥 :;1《^ 币傅來 Kh?;iiai (sliui (sz, fiV 如 i, 
Ta】、-e:5=s } 棒 去呢个 千里鏡 (Ning liii' ^ni ko) (ts% ; li king'. 
To be married (said of women) 出!^ Ch'ut, ka'. 
To take a wife 娶考婆 Tsii' ^16 j/o. 

When will the teacher come ? 先生幾 11$ 来 ,Sm (sliang 'ki-^sbi Joi. 
I want a tea cup 我 愛茶林 'Ngo oi- ccb'a ^pui. 

I want a cup of tea 我 愛林茶 'Ngo oi; (pm jch'a. 
Tea is ready 茶 j^p^ij ,Ch'a p'm)- la'. 

I am ready 我 翻菌略 "Ngo ; ts'ai pi; lok,. 

6. Classifiers. 

A classifier is added to or precedes eveiy noun, whenever it stands 
in relation to numerals. Our words herd (in herd of cattle) ; sheets (in 
sheets of paper) ; pieces (in pieces of silk) correspond exactly to these 
classifiers, which the studeut will do well to commit to memory before, 
he proceeds further. 、 

1. Ko' 個 is applied to men, as yat, ko' cyan ~~ "個人 one man. 

Shap, ko、 =nii ^tsai 十 個女仔 Ten girls. 


Grammar of tub Chinese Language, 

6. Classifiers. 

1(0, 个 the abbreviated ko' 简 is applied to inanimate objects, 
such as baskets, coin &c., &c. 

,d neung- ko' clam Joi 買雨 简篮來 Buy two baskets. 
cPi ; Dg ko' 'ping ,kon 俾五货 | 弁乾 Give him live biscuits. 

2. Cbek, 隻 is applied to boats, vessels, birds, quadrupeds, legy, 
arms, eyes &c. In Hahka colloquial it is also applied to man. 


Yat, chek, H^eng —隻艇 Ono b.)at. 

" ,, cshiin 一 雙 ft One vessel. 

Stap, ,, M 十隻鷄 Ten chickens. 

sNg', ,, (cM 五赛猪 Five pigs. 

"I^eimg " ^shau 雨辈手 Two arms. 

Yat, ,, %g;m 一隻眼 One eye. 

Call a boat. Embark in that ship. Weigh tkat chicken. Buy a pig- 
Raise one arm. Open one eye. 

To call 叫來 kiu' Joi. 2. To embark, to take passage in, ; [界 tap,. To 

weigh 稱 ch'iug'. To buy 買 -mai. To raise 

舉 'kix. To 

open 打開 

3. Tiii' 對 is applied to tiling's that we use in pairs, as shoes, - 
stockings, scrolls, &c. 


Yat, tui' Mi 一 對鞋 One pair of shoes. 
Yat, tfii' mat J — ■ ^^予 度 One paii- of stockings. 
• Yat tui' 'tui '~ "蒙、 J* 對 One pair of scrolls. 


Make a pair of shoes. Knit a pair of stocking's. Write a pair of sceolls, 
Pat on this pair of sboes. Teke off" this pair t^tocking's. 

To make 造 tso-. To knit cliilr). To write 寫 'se. To put on. 

著 cheiik,. To tcike off 腺 

4. ^Sheung is applied to a pair, a couple^ double, &c. 

Note 2. ― In kiu' Joi and similar phrases the object must be put between 
the two verbs. Exception : lu negative sentences, as: ― 

的油斟 {!§"出 (ni tik, jau (cham ch^ut, 。/唔 斟 
得出呢 的、》 由 ?m ; cham tak, ch'ut, (ni tik, .yavi,' Cannot 
pour out this oil, the particles t'A 《?" , yap 、―, Joi, follow immedi- 
ately after the negative or the auxiliary verb. 


Grammar of the Chinese Language. 


— - — — . , I „ . 


,Sh6nng ^n-an .fa Jin- 雙 3 艮花资 《 A two-eyed peacock's feather. 
^Sheung- ^hau kirn' 雙 P 劍 A double edg-ed sword. 

5. TA 把 is applied to things held in the hand like an umbrella 
fan, knife, &o. 

Hold this umbrella. 
(Nino- ko, ^pa (td Joi 摔箇把 7/ 來 Bring' that knife. 
(Hoi fill 'pa 'so 開呢^^^^ Open this lock: 
Yat, cp:i "^ts^o 一^ '^fS 甲- One bundle of g-rass. 

<P(i .pa =pa ^pa ,p'a ,p'a tP 爸爸 ffiffilC|jE5 地 Papa holds a rake 
to scratcli the ground. 

6. ^Cheunf>- 張 is applied to thing's that are spread out, as a sheet 
of paper, bed and table covers. &c. 


cPi ^sam fCbenng' 'ch'i kwo' -ngo 俾二張 紙過我 Give me three 
sheets of paper. 

"IYii、lau (p'd shap; fChSung tsik;_ 1^ 參慮 十張篇 Spread ten mats 
in the large room. 

Shat, hii' yat, (cli6img"p(i 失去 ■ ~ 張被 Lost one quilt. 

. 7. ,Chi a brancli, twig-, is applied to thing's which are round 
and slejider. 

(Nim hii' (cW pat, 

枯去呢 々支筆 Take away that pencil. 

'Sai ,ni (chi ; ng';'i ts'at, 洗呢 i' 支牙擦 Wash this tooth brush. 

8. cT'iu is applied to anything long- and slender, as a cane, a 
pike ; also to divisions or articles of laws &c. It is more generally used 
than the pveceeding- and chiefly applied to finished objects. 

c-Ngo (t'ai km' yat, .t'iu .she^^MM "條 它 I see a snake. 

-L6un^ .ti'u lo- ^to hii' tak, 雨條路 都去得 Both roads are passable. 

Hii' 'lo yat, ct'iu ^ma (pin (pi kwo' ; ngo 去鑼一 條馬鞭 過我 
Go and t'^h me a horse whip. 

sTs'am ;, m ehe uk, ko' yat, ; Hiitfii^ 尋卩 §• 着舊 ■ 條帶 I cannot find 
that g-irdle. *" 

Yat, st'ifi ,shino- ~ 'M^^ A cord. 

Tso^yat, ; t^iim 售 一條裤 Make one pair of trousers. 

is applied to building's (for other meanings of this 
character we uiust refer the student to the dictionary), 

Yat, (l"'m "k、 ~ ■ 間屋 One house. 


Grammar of the Chinksk Lanouagb. 


He erects three coun- 

cil chambers. 

Tsoi' (Tleung (kong- ^yau (s4m ^kan Jcung ku】" 在香港 有三間 <2 ^局 
There are three arsenals in Hongkong-. 

Yat, (Mn kiiV ts(V'fo yhik, kuk, ~ "間 叫做 火藥局 One is called the 

powder magazine. 
Tai' i' ,kan ki &, tso^ ,kwan .leung- kuk, 第二 鬨呌做 軍糧局 

The other is called the Commisssariat. 

Tai^ ,sam ,kdn kiiV tso^ (k、van hi, kuk, 第三間 (?夺 叙軍 器局 
The third is called the armory. 

10. Tso^ 座 is applied to seats, sbiines, hills, pagoda's &c. 
'in jt'an yat, tso^ 起壇 ~ "座 Et'ect an altar. 

Yat, tso^ t'ap, ~~ "座塔 Que pagoda. 

11. To* 度 frequently stands for 渡 to pass over or through ft pM- 


giving kwo' ; ng to' (kwan 經過 五度關 Went by five passes. 

a'm (hoi ko) yixt, ib' 掩開筒 一度門 Open that door. 

<Hi ,to 'leimg' 16' ^k^iu 起多 雨度橋 Raised two bridges in addition. 

22. Puk, 中慕 is applied to maps, pictures, inscriptions and similar 
thing-s, that are roiled up or stretched out like the preceding. 
WaVki fuk, .slum (sliui w:? 畫幾 幅山水 畫 Paint a few lacdscapea. 
Yat, fuk, jts'eun.,^ 一 幅牆 A wall. 

13- Chan' |^ is applied to a gust, a dash, a beam, a pnflf Ac. 

Yat, chan^ Jung "陣風 A gust of wind. 

" (kwong —陣光 Abeam of light. 

(in -"" "陣姻 A puff of smoke. 

Sliik, ,loi lolc, yat, cban^ 'ii 適來落 一陣雨 A shower of rain fell 

just now. 

Yat, chflii^ ; cli(an kom' tai= 」陣塵11^*大 As big- as a cloud of dust. 

,, (in ,, y&mg; 一陣 jlfljliM^ Like a cloud of smoke. 

14, _Nap, j^jl is applied to g-rain, seed, buttons &c. 

Yat, nap, tau^ kom' (to 一粒宣 |J1]' 多 So much as one bean. 

,, ,, ^sha tit, yap, 'k'ii ke' 'ng4n noi' 一粒沙 跌 TUgp 旣眼内 
A grain of r-ancl fell into his eye*:. 

Gramma a ok rns Chinese Language. 


15, jCh'eunj'' \^ is applied in a similar manner as clian' 
(No. 13.); but the acts are of i\ longer duration. 

,S'm ,sbi lok, yat, .cli'oune: t-ii' ; ii 先 落一 塲大雨 
A heavy rain feil before. 

(T6 siin' yat, ^cli'eang 'ts'oi 都 奠"" "楊彩 I think I was very luoky. 
J 6. Tui^ 隊 is applied to a division, group, party, or a company of 
people and animate beings. ' 

佢打 發幾隊 兵去城 

Ho sent several dirisitns of soldiers into the town. 

T«oi> Sx (iin ^yau pt, tul^ 'nii ; van 在花 爾有一 [^家 女人 
There is a party of ladies in the g-ardt n. 

17. jKw'an stands for herd, flock &c, 

Yat, jkw'an jeiing' — • ^^羊 A flock of sheep. 
-. ,, 'ye ap, 一 靈!!^^!島 ,, wild ducks. ' 
" 'sliui jRf^au — 水 4^ A herd of buffaloes. 

18. Tjit, is applied to irregulaf pieces or spots. 

Ko' 'pa kirn' (s—' yat, tfit, 隨, 箇把 劍生 一笪绣 
A spot of rust has come ou that sword. 

19. FiV 扉 j is used as a cliv^sifier of lots, sets &c. 

Yat, fu' hi' kii' ~~ "闺 ij 器具 A set of instruments. 

(San chi, yat, fu' (siin ,cln ;"。 i 新 讃 一副 酸 枝邊椅 
Lately purchased a set of ebony tables and chairs, 

20. Kill* 件 is applied to articlest)f dress, to affairs of business &c. &c' 

sNi 'yau (to kii? (i ; sh6ung 你 有幾多 件衣裳 
How many articles of dress have you ? 

Tsoi' ,ni ch'u' hui^ ,sam 】d"; 在呢' 羞係三 十件 

There are tliii-ty articles here. 

Ko' kin' ,p'6 Jiin (hi mP :ts'ang 箇伴 辦奔 起未曾 
Ilavo you sewed that robe yet ? 

'^? yat, ldu2 S7? * km)' ^ni (chi 我有一 件事話 過你知 
I have an aflfair to communicate to ; you. 

.N5 y.t, kiu^ W kok, Imi; ok, uK'ii' 呢一 件货確 係惡賀 
This sort of goods is indeed difficult of sale. 

iu' L'o) kin' (rung ,sai U 吾要箇 件東西 I do not want that thing. 

21. Fai' 瑰 is applied to pieces or portions of earth, wood, cloth he. 

. ' (11) 

Grammar of tiik Chinbss LANrtUAOK. 


Yat, f^U"chi kom' pok, ~~ "塊 ;、 饫 ft|t; 得 As thir, as a piece of paper. 
Ko, idV p6' (pi kwo' ^a-o t::f 塊 ill 俾過我 Give me that piece of cloth. 
Tsuk, ,m6 yat, I'p, 足漠 一塊装 Just like a leaf. 
Yat, fai' shek, ~ ■ 瑰石 A stone. 
,Sam fdi' i"g:m 三塊 Three dollars. 

•22. tT'iin 團 stands for lumps, clods, and is chiefly applied to 
detached substances of earth, dough &c. 

Yat, jt'iin jiiai ~ '|^:^^ A clod or lump of enrtli. • 

" miu^ ―. 團 , A 】'imp of douj^h. 
(Ta jinai yat "(iin — 團 A fi^ihting" connle on tiie sround. 

'Ni ,p'5 sat, h,ii» y^t, ; t(nn .mi 你 旣蒈 薩係 -[SM 
Your idol is but a lurap of c】ay. 

23. ; T'ong' 堂 is applied to ladders, sails &c., (it is seldom, used.) 

Yat, jt'ong It, ^che ~ " 堂熱遮 A sun screen. 

'X*u S-au ^leung "'ong' ^maa clieiing^ 但有 雨堂! ^帳 
He has two mosquito curtains. 

24. jHon^ is applied to a ro"', line &c. - 

Ko' ,hono. qau ^ts^ung- kan^ (hoi /a 箇 行柳: If 近闘花 
That row of willows 、vill soon flower. 

(Hoi (pin pok, yut, Jiong cl 山? ,shun '海邊 泊一行 ®® 

A row of men-of-war are anchored on the sea gboi'e. 

25. Ka' 架 A wooden frame, a stand on which thiug-s are placed. 
J kiV 衣架 Clothes horse. 

Yat, ka' ^shui ,ch^e bii' kau' ^fo 一架 車 去救火 
A lire eng-ine went to put out the fire. 

26. (To is applied to flames, flowers <fcc* 
Yat, (to cfo — 朵火 One flame (N. 8.) 

<Ni 'to 'fo sik, ^liii 呢 杂火息 了 The fire is gone out. 
Yat, ^tOj ,fa — 花 A bouquet of liowers. 

27. P'ui' pf- A slip, a slice, a hit &c. 

Yat, p《ir? muV, .sheung" ^k^ii ke' ^sbau (chi —片 木傷佢 P 旣手指 
A small piece of wood injured his fing'er. 

Note 3. — (T6 is frequently pronouncod (til, chiefly so ia conaecLlou witii 
flowers. ^ 


Grammar or the Chinese I'ANdUACiB. 

,K(ii yat, p'in' (sam s?} sung' (pi ; ni 

佢一 片心事 送俾你 

He gives it to you from his ueart. 

28. Tsikj 席 A feast, convei'sation (Not frequently used.) 

Pan' yat, tsik, Hsau ^ts'injv jan hak, 辦 一席酒 請人客 
Sure ad the table and invite the guests. 

Ko' yat, tsikj ws? 茵 ~^ "席話 That conversation. • 
Yat, tsikj ^ho ,slKin tP 一 席好山 地 A lucky spot [for a,grave.】 

• 29. jPau 包 a bundle (5ic. 
*Mdi jinin rik yat, j)au 買锦花 一包 Purchase a bale of cotton. 
Yat, (卩: iu (cM ~~ "包系!^ A packet of paper. 

SO- Chat, 矛 |j Also denoting things tied into a bundle. 
Yat, clmt, pat, ~~ ^礼筆 A bundle of pencils. 

SI. (Fung 封 is applied to 】ettei's. 
Tat, /ling' sun' ~ "封信 One letter. 

82. ,T6 刀 One quire. ' 
Yat, ,10 'chi — "刀 系氏 One quire of paper. 

33. Tun Acts of play ; a volume &. o. 
Yat, 'pi'in hi' ~~ 戲 A piny in one act. 

" fShii --" "本書 One volume. 
Tukj 'pun ,sliu 讀呢 Tji 書 Eead this book. 

34. T'6' is applied not to sin^e volumes but to sets of books, and 

works containing- more than one volume. 

Yat, t'6, (shii ~~ "套書 A complete work. 

cNi t(6, (sliii slmt, 'iiu yat, p<V 呢參書 了一部 

Lost one volume of this set'of books. • 

»Mai yat, ,Sara kvvok, Cbf 買 一 套三國 |g 
Purchase a copy of the Three States. 

So. 都 is more frequentl}' applied to a single volume of books 
til an ^pun (No. {33.) 

Yat, p6' (shii. — " 部^^ One volume. 

Oi* (ki (to (ni 愛幾多 都呢 !王續 many volumea do you want f 

36. P'at, is applied to horses, boards &0. 

Yat, p'at, 'ma ~~ ^匹馬 A horse. 

Ko, pak, je ;. yau n6ung- p'af, ,s6 箇 有雨匹 蠻 
That el*lai'l\' mm Ivw tivo tnu^^taches. 

(1:0 - 

Grammar of tiik Chinese Lanquaoe 


37. 'Ha 吓 is applied to blows with the hand or stick ±c. 
Yat, 'ha (shall • ~ \\\\ ^'- One blow ot the hand. 

Ta ; k'ii sbai), 'ha tXjS+PT Give bim ten blows. 

38. ChUin' 串 is applied to things strung- tog-ether. 

Yat, cliHiu' (Ii6ung (chU ~~ - 串 香珠 One string of frag-rant beads. 

39. Sheng-^ 乘 is applied to cluiirs and carriages. 
Yat, sh^ng^ 'kiu, 一 乘幸喬 One sedaa chair (4). 

40. T'iit, 3£ Suits of cloths. 

Yat, t'iit, (i fuk^ ~ "flSl 衣 服 one suit of clothes. 

41. 'Ku 股 is used for shares and parts in business, and for heads 

and divisions in essays. 

Yat, 'ku (shang i' -" "股 生意 One share in a business. 

Ko' ,man ^clieun^ (fan ,sam taP 'ku tsok, 筒文 章分三 大股作 
That essay is divided into three principal heads. 

42. Kukj 局 is applied to games of chess or chess boards. 
Yat, kukj jk'I -"" "局棋 One game of chess. 

43. (Kon is applied to bamboo. 

Chung' yat, (kon chuk, 種 ~ "竿竹 Plant one bamboo. 

44. Claii' '火王 denotes a cluster of incense sticks. 

Tat, cbu' ,heiing- ~ "^I (王香 One cluster of insease sticks. ' 

45. (Fo 夥 is applied to parties, companies, bands &c. 
Yat, (fo ts'akj "~ "夥贼 A band of robbers. 

46. sMan 文 denotes cash. 

Tat sinan jts'in ~~ "文錢 One cash* 

47. ^Mfm r P, 

(Etau \ n The ^I'st is applied to pieces of artillery ; the next 

] -T, to pistols and revolvers dc. 
jHam ( 咸 

; Ni ^yau sliap; .mnn tnP (pVui 你有十 大》 包 
You Lave ten pieces of cannon. 

'Leung (hau (shau .ts'eung 雨 口手鎮 A two-barreled pistol. 
Lukj jham (p';iu 六咸炮 A revolver. 

48. ,Fong 方 is applied to squares of ink or inkstones ; of beef, mut- 

ton, pork &c. 

NtiTB 4. ― More frequently said ; yat, 'ting ^kiu. 


Grammar of the Chinese LAxouAas 


Yat ,fong' in^ — V^'ES One inkstone. 

49. P^at, 疋 is applied to cloth or silk. 

Yat, p'al, po' ~ "冗布 A piece of calico. 

^0. ^Fo is used for heads, pearls and other small round things. 
Yat, cfo .cLan ^cbii 一 顆珍珠 A pearl. 

Yap, ts'ak, claai^ ^cbam ^shau shap, ,u (fo 71 贼寨 首 十餘颗 
Went into the encampment of the robbers and cut off more than ten heads, 

51. Tun^ Parts, sentences, paragraphs &c. 

Yat, tiiri^ (san ; man ~ "段 新聞 A piece of news.' 

" ti; 一段地 One piece of ground. 

53. 'Fun is applied to sections or articles of laws, treaties, peti- 
tions, business, news &c. 

Yat, (fun sz- ~~ "欽事 An affair. 

Wo^ yeuk, ta? luk, (fim 和約第 六欽 The sixth article of the treaty 
of peace. 

Tsau' ,ts'mg yat, (fun 奏情 ^ 欽 A memorial. ' 
^Leung' cfun (san jman (cM 雨欽 新聞紙 Two kinds of news papers 

53. Wai' 位 denotes persons of rank and respectability. 
Yat; waP hik, ~ "位客 A gentleman, a visitor. ' 

'Yau 4euug wai^ jan Mk, Joi t'am' ^ni 位人 ^^^fjt 

Two gentlemen have come to visit you. 

54. jUn 圓 also written 員 is applied to things round, circular &g. 

iJVgo him' -ni ; ngaii shap, tai^ jiin 我欠 你銀 十大員 
I owe you ten dollars. 

55. siia 員 is applied to officers of government. 

sYau ,kun ; yan .s^ira ,iin ^sbeung- pakkins 弯官人 三員上 京 
Three officers are going to Peking. 

r)(3. jTs^ang 層 is uped for stories of houses Sec. 
Yat, its^ang Jau 一 層櫻 One storie.l house. 

57. Ip, 頁 is applieJ to strips or leaves of paper (fee. 
(Ki ip, (chi 幾頁 '紙 Several strips of paper. 

58. To' is sometimes applied to men, but chiefly to documents, 
commands of the emperor and their imitations used in temples. 



^Shai kvvo' (s&m to^ cvun hii' (ts'm ^ai 使過 三追人 去催你 
1 have sen*, three messenj^ers to urge; you. 

Tak^kong*' (chiyat, 1^>》特降諭曾 ~" A special Imperial command.. 

59. T'ip, 貝占 is ^ipplied to plasters etc. 

^shau trip, yat, t'ip, ,ko venk, 手 Sfi ~ ^Bfi 膏藥 
He has a plaster on his wris(, 

.Shau — i (ki t^p, > .cln 收堙幾 I! 占胭脂 
Received several papers of rou^e. 

60. Tim 點 is used for spots, dots & 2. 

Yat, Hira (sing ~ 星 A star. 

,, jslu ~ "豁時 A moment of time. 
,, niak, ~~ A drop of ink. 

61. Tarn' 檐, 植 A burden, a picul Sec. 

*K'u tam* tiilv, -leung uim' ^mai f 巨; 得雨资 f 米 
He is able to can 了 two piculs of rii. je. 

62. ; Cii'ung- is used for a series, succes, jion &c. 

,King kwo' 'ki ; cVung' ,mun 經過 幾重門 

Passed througli a successiuu of doo rs. 

63. Ldf, A colloquial expression denot iag" rows of things with 

interstices between them. 

Yat, Ikt, shii= rauk, "~ ■ 辣樹木 A row of tre (s. 

*Mui ,pin ^jau yat, lat, Jan ,lcon 每邊有 一 \ '銀 欄衧 
Each side has a balustrade. 

64. (Hau jU (see No 47) is applied to thir .gs with sharp edges (feo. 
Yat, 'hau Iciiu' ~ - p f^;fj A sword. 

Tai^ ,t6 ,sarn 'hau 大 刀三口 Three hatchets. 

65. Mln- 面 is applied to mirrors, gongs, banners &o. 
Yat, miu^ keng-' ~~ "面鏡 A looking- glass. 

,, Jo ― 面 !羅 A gong. 

66. (Tsimg; 宗 is applied to matter, affaii 'B (seldom used). 
Yat, (tsung hin sz^ ~~ > 宗美事 A noble affa ii、 

'K'ii (tsiu'.g 'pan sing' sliat, 'shau ok, f 巨宗 |; 【生 貫首惡 
His whole disposition is bad. 

( It; ) 

Gkammar of the Chinese Language. 

ClnssifUn's, 7. Chine-se Designation of the Parts of Speech. 

r)7. on 尾 is: applied to fishes &c. 
Yat, 'mi Ai _ :尾货 A iish. 

G8. T《oi 1 is applied to stages and plays. 
\^ J " 

,nin ,m ch'ii' ; yau (Id ; t'oi In' tso^ 年年呢 處有幾 檯戲做 
There are several plaj's acted here every year. 

69. (Pin is applied to parties moving in a procession. 

'Yau 《ki shap, 'pan <di《un shik, liii' jing- ^cli'im 有 幾十板 春色去 
迎^^ Several tens of processions have goue to usher ia the spring. 

Yat, ^pan tau^ fiV — "^I^H^f A frame of bean card. 

70. ,Chn 椿 I 2oth are applied to trees. 
-Kan 根 j " 

fSong shii^ ^sam ,chu 慰二矛 Three mulberry trees. 

71. ^Kim is applied to tubes, which are in China chiefly mide 

of bamboo, 

Yat, (ki'in pat, 一誓筆 A pencil. 
*• .sill 

~ "誉 If A flageolet. 

72. 'Ting: 7^ is extensively applied to tilings pointed on the top, as 

Chinese caps, hats, sedans &c. 

Yat, Hing mb' —項帽 A cap or hat. 

73. Kii, 句 is npplieJ to sentences, phrases &c. 
Yat, ku' Wf? "~ "句 0^ A sentence. 

75. 'Chan 盖 is applied to lamps. 

Yat, ^chan (lang -" "蓋^ )^ One lamp. 

There are a few more classifiers not contained in the preceding list ; 
hi\t as tbey never occur in colloquial, and but seldom in books, there is 
no need for burdening the student's memory with them, 

7. Chinese Designation of ihe Parts of Speech. 
The Chinese divide the characters or words of their language into 
fHii ts(z; 虚字 Particles or Prepositions &c. 
Shat. ,, 實字 Verbs, Nouns &c, 

Cho^ " 助^^ Auxiliaries (lit : words supporting* speech) i. e. 

words terminating- sentences and defining their 
signification. In most instances tbey are sub- 
stitutes for our pnnctuatiou. 

Cham mar of tu k Chinksk Language. 

7. Chinese di\vgnatloyi of the Parts of tSpceck. 

The Nouns, Adjectives, and Verbs are again subdivided into nr., tsz* 
and (sz tsz^ (living- nud dead clinracters). The former com[)rise the Verbs 
tlio latter the Nouns mid Adjcctive^j. Fiynirative or metaphorical expres- 
sions are called 假借 ^ka tso'. 

Little attcTit ion has as yet been paid by foreign students to Chinese 
composition. They Imve r«ad books, committed sentences to momory ami 
copied Chinese wrilinji ; but few liave so far mastered the Chinese pen or 
brush as to be able to write a document correctly without the aid of a 
teacher. This is cliieHy owing to tlie facility with wliich competent 
Chioese teficliers can be engag-ed ; and nlso to tlio impossibility (if a person 
does not wish to wasto'his valunble time) of <x forciqner \vritiiig the Chinese 
characters so eleg-antly, that tijey can be presented to persons of rank - 
but no less to the lack of practical works in the various dialects serving 
ns competent guides to a kna\vied|^e of the written language. 

8. Gender, Number and Case of Nouns, and Moods and Tenses of Verhs. 

The Chinese lang'uaf^e having no inflexion ot Nouns, Adjectives and 
Vei-bs, these clistincfiotis ai-e represented bj' words used as prefixes ami 
Kuffixea, and bj auxiliary Verbs and particles. 

9. The Article. 

1. The clefinite article is expressed ))y demonsti-ative, relative and 
personal pronouns, of which the following occur the most frecjuentlj : 一 
111 Looks. 

Dem : Pronoun ; 此 (ts(z and 餅 (sz. this ; 

彼、 >i that. In Colloquial. Punti: ; Ni ti; tliis ; 

is and <Ko that ; 

Bel : Pronoun : 者 'chS, which ; & 

所 'sbo wLich and that which. Court D : 那恼 ko, that j and 

Che' ko, this. - 

Pers : Pronoun : 其 iK'i he, she, it. 


Book Innpjnafre in the upper line, and 
Punti Collo(juial in the lower. 
The man [be- ( , , . 

fore me] ) B. KA>t^/^ 'Ts'z jan fu^ (chi Joi. 

oX?Sack' I P. 呢恼入 其來 cNi kJ' ,yan fu= ,k'i Jof. 

T】i"S;{ B. 斯 S 不 |S 菜 .Sz sbu^ pat, kit, (k"'。. 
frn it. 1 R 呢 《条 樹 都 Pu 結 Hr 

ulc to carrv ou ihc. back. 



Ihe Definite Art'ide. The liuhfnite Article. The JS'o 

Tliew-.. man lost { B, 春喪偶 ' Pi ^ts^ni ,tsMng,cL'nn sons-'' 'nj^ar. 

P' 個去 > ^齒後 生 Ko' hiuo'atislieniio^ W,hang 

when stilJ 

The man bar 
Uours miilici 
ous intentions. 

' B. i*: 人慎 if》i;i、 av'i .van cwai tul" (sam. 

、p. 個 人 li 毒 A !^、 

B. 失其餘 

Lost the rest. 
The rest is not C . …, , h , 

worth being-l B. 其餘: Tv£|S 也 

looked at, ,、 

Neither the [ C CoW: 一 sa 又不中 

one nor) 竟 那個又 不中意 

; 你叉唔 中意呢 "w! 

you: 叉唔中 意個她 

(Ko ko' jjau .wai tuk, (sam. 
Shat, .k'i ; tt. 
.K'l jii pat, tsuk, (ki'm S a- 

Cbe' ko' jau^ pat, ,c\n\r\^ P; 'no, 

Ivo' yau- pat, (chmig P. 
'jN^i ysiii- j'li) ,cuun<J- ? ,m iP; yau' 

llow can tlie man 
void of vii-tne 
huiJ an ofiice ? 


人者無 德安 O'aii 'che cmo tak, (un ,nang 
能 任 ? i$ 乎 y 腿 2 cliik, cu. 

10. Ihe Imlejinde Article. 

The Tjidefinite Article is expresseel by tlie Xuineval ~ > y;it. aud is 
filways followed 1)y the classifier npjtlied to the vespectivo Nomi. It, is 
? eldnni ex[iresseil in the literary st^'lu ; but always in ])opuUir litoriitui e, 
and in conven'atiun. 

I tal^e a room on lease P. 

我 1fi —間房 ;、 Tg-o .tso ynt, Jcun J'on- 
I n-ave ImafC. 我 俾他一 简沙梨 ; Ng。 (1:1 (t"at, ko\sha ,11. 
a pear. \ p. ^pfl—— 箇沙梨 過^巨 ,, yat, ko' (sk'i ,U kwo^ 

買船 ~ "隻 "^liU ; shiin )'at, cliek, oi- [:l</iL 
R "^|/?S -Mai yat, cliek, ,sMn. 
A good intention 1\ 有 4 固好怠 '; Yau ko' 'lio P. 

The Noun. The Gender. 

Thoiiirli in Nouns Imve no genJei", there are, besiilc?; the Ad- 

jectives 男"^ jiiAm -n ii, mnle mid female, as applied to mnn, cli-iracters 
express in|L^' the gen(W of ench peculiai' species of animate nature. 

1. The male and female, the cveativG and receptive, tlip active nnil 
passive, the I'ositive and neg'ative principle of natiue is \^ and 陰 

purchased a sliip - P. 



T!ie. Gender. The Numher. 

sycung- aud jam; but iihvays pronounced jam .ycung 陰 ||^((" [乾坤 
skill fkw'an Heaven and eurtli, father and motliu'i-.] ' 

2. TJje male and f / 、了, 
female of man. \ >):^ : 扎 'mi. 

3. The inal(3 and J ..^ 

fa mule of" birds. ( /^'jiWll JIung- (ts'z (Snenk Sc wi-ito /I's'z climig-.) 

母 (Kung" 'mo and (Kung' 、n:i do. 

4. The mnle and ( 1 1 i , 

fciuale of qiiiulrupeds. ( 'J^Iau '])'an (Speak 'p'an :mau.) (G) 

r>. The.mals and female or innsculino and feminine character of in- 
animate iii'ture is expressed bv 岡 ij 某 Jvong and .yau (strong- and soft.) 


It is a, imm 男人 HaP cn:'iin ^yan. 
. It is a woman 女人 " -nix " 
A coek llfi^ JCai ,kuiig; a hen <kal -mo. 

A bull 牡牛 牝牛 

fKvuij^' ^ and ^nu jjl^ are the g'eneral terms used in colloquial for ex- 
pressing the o-ender of every species of animate nature except 

Is this a cock or a hen-bird? 呢 隻雀係 或係乸 

(、化 cbelc, tseuk, 

liai- jkiing- wakj hal* 'n:'i. 
Where is the sow? ? §|| 在邊! ^呢 ,Chu 'n(i tso? (pin cli'ii' (nL (7) 

2. Number. 

Every noun may express tlio singular as well as the plural. ; JNg'o 
k6' ^miin .t'o 我 [慨 P^l^ may mean. My pupil, or uiy pupils - ko' ok^ 
£)^an "1 固;' ■ ^人 may express : that bad man or tlioso bad men. Where 
distinctness is i-equired, the characters (tang ^^, ; mun pin' 寧, 
luP 類, 曹, ctsSli ) 『; 矛, ^ch'au fr^^ are put after the substantive; kok, 

ISoTK 6. ― iYam ^j'eung are also applied to concave and coavex objects 
cyeuug convex Hies; 

陰 K jam ^nga con- 
cave do. 5 the Ibrmer covering' the latter as heaven does earth. 

G. ― These characters are also applied to plants, 
Note 7. —— As these words nre seldom used in g-eneral conversation, 
foreigners find themselves often in a clileninn^ when having' to 
refer to the g'emler of animals, whilst the Chinaman will al- 
ways help himself by speaking of a " (iof and a "girl 


Words folio win (J the JSoun. Plural Nitmher. 

各, (chii 害霄, cbnn-' ; 凡' shii) {H;,,to 者 ,kai 皆 and ,kui 
j^, .hum (kii 俱, (ts'im 舍, mair 萬, 'tsung- 總, either precede 
01- follow the noun. . 

'Tano" is tbe most common character used to denote the plural. 

-Ngo (tang' 我等, "lu 'tang-, 你寿 are used both in books and colloquial, 

-Ng-o 'tang- 'seung hii' 我 去 We wish to leave. 

,Nung (fu /kung tscuiig- Hang' 夫工 匠^^ Ap'ricultuvists & ai tizans. 

jMan 'mo Jvun ^sliciing- .van 'tang' :loi 文!^ 官商. 人等來 Civil and 
military oliiccrs and merchants arrivea. 

^Tang 等 also denotes a variety of things enumerated under one 

head, e. //. ^niai muka, -ngfi, sbek, ^tang mat, 其賀木 S 石等物 
lie purcbufced timber, tiles, stones and such material. 

Plural Ktimher. 

gMuu jpl is only applied to man, and used in colloquial as well as 

in Looks; e.g. ^T^a cuuia 他' f 門 Tliey. Its application is more limited 

than ^tang ^^, niul it is never used but in connection Avith a pronoun. 

曹, ^cli'ai 條, and .cli'^-iu also denote the plural and are, like 
the preceding, only applied to man. 

Pup 輩 and lui' 鎖 are applied to man, and to objects denoting- a 
class or genus. Pui' 車 is frequently preceded by an Adjective, which 
it cliaug-ei--- into a substantive of tbe plural number, e- g. Ok, pui' 惡 ^ 
ths wiclzed ; pui' 義輩 tlie rig-liteous ; jt'ung pui' [^輩 comnules. 
Lui' 類 frequently denotes a g-enns, as ; yau lui, 人類 man ; jch'ung' 
lui' insects : sliau^ lui' 獸類 quadrupeds, and is often used for 

pui' as : (fi iui' jlEMl vagaLonds. 

Chung.' 1^, (elm |g, sliii' 庶, ,to 都, (Mi 皆, (】"U 货, kok, $', 
rfan 凡, ; idi 俱, ^ts'im n^, im'ii? 萬, (tsung' 總, sik) c'.iam 咸, 

chit? ^{^ raicT 'kii 舉 are Indefinite Pronouns, when used without IS^ouns, 

and Adjectives wlien joined to a JYoun. 

Their position is indicated in the following- rhyme : —— 
Clmng, (dm ,。 sliii, kok, chi.V .fan $t 諸 多 庶 各兆 凡 
Sik, 'tsung (kii muii^ 'gc .t^'m ,yan 寫前人 
cKai .to (kU ,ham :ts^ung van mat, 皆 ffiftji^ 從人物 
^liin^ Tan '-ts'z tsz^ 'piu 'ko put,. 善分此 字表好 華 


Grammau of the Cir inesk Languagk. 

The Non/i. Plural Number in Funli ColloquiaL Caaes. 

Examples of isnch of the preceding woi'ds as sometimes precede and 
sometiines follow the noun. — 

Shing' cyan (。、 tsoi^ ,t'in 聖人 都在天 All saints are in heaven. 

Joi qiu 都來工 All have arrived. 
; Vh s,m oi^ Si>Pu I 山) not like any. 

人多 。r 好多人 Many men or very mnny men. 
/Fs'im is frequently used without a Noun, as: ^ts'Im ap, All signed. 

3. Plural in the Punti ColloquiaL 
The plural in the "Punti Colloquial, is expressed by: ― 
T? as : ^i\o-o tp 我 [5 也 we ; 'ni tP 《尔 JJill you (^tang and ,mun 等 
and are seldom lienrd), 

^&M^ir We also g-o. 

PhIII All e.g. ^Luiig (tsmig t-ii' hii' ^liu 帶去了 
All has been cariied away. 

Ili'm? pung^ lang- nil, e, (J. • Ili'im^ pfing^ Ifing^ ^to hai^ yat, 

yeimg^ (cht3 喊口/ f 车 T 令都愈 一 樣睹 Thej are all alike 
very good. 

Besides these words peculiar to the Punti and Hakka, the plural is 
expressed by repetition, ns : ^yan jan 

人人 every man. jYan ; yan liai^ 

'kom yeung^ vv;? 人人係 【敬 樣!! 舌; yot, yat, \\ B Every day or on 
all da^'s. 

Muii^ kwok, 萬國 All king-cloms. Pak, ,pan 般 In every way. 

Ke' 卩旣 fulclwl to Pronouns and Adjectives also implies tlio plural, as : 

Hai^ 'ni ke^ 丫系 f 尔 P 旣 '1'—' me yours. (Cl 蘭 liai; 'iio ke^ 眞丫 系女" 旣 
The are really g-ood ones. 

Court Coll 

Punti Coll 

Ti) 的 (8) and ti) 底 5 也 and k (? P 旣 
,Ying kwok, ti' ,sh\m 英國 Ui 也 (or ^^) 船 An English vessel. 

Note 8. 一 Whenever the character 的 tik, is used in Canton Colloquial, 
the k oug-ht then to be dropped. In elegant colloquial writing 

的 tP is preferred to tP and OS ignorant teachers fre- 
quently give it its full sound, the student should take care to 

note tlio difference. (的 ^Ti with the :]}(ing; ^sliing see com- 


The Noun. The Genitive. The Led I 

Tlie emnerop's palace. 
A' ,te tP 0? 阿爹 [i〈J 愛 Fiithev's love. 
, Chung kwok, tV- vv:V 中 國 fj^fj The Chinese Inngnng-e. 
(T'm tP (sing The stars of Heaven. 

The most common ciiaracter used in literary style is (clii 之 as : ― 
FiV ,cln oi^ 3^ 之^ Tlie father's love. 

tSliiii; 'clie (cW fiik, 善考之 $S The happiness of tLe g-ood. 
.Hang- ; wai ,clu yeung' ^11'Mi>$l '^M The manner of doing- things. 

The f^'enitive is also expi-essod by position, as : ― 
cYo (si'i kiki) ! ^11 IS 教 The doctrine of Jesus. 
Kwok, fat, 圍 The laws of p. Kingdom. 


'li f 《-, ; wo 禾 n, tui' §i, t^a? 替, (ch u 養善, (ii jj^ and (fi 于 are 
words denoting' the dative. In the Piniti Colloquial ; t'unjr 同, kwo' 過, 
kiing- and "ru'd are of 】nore frequent occurrence. 

Court Dialect. 
Soy or speak to liirn. 

^ii (tYt piiiit, |ii 他說 

Tui^ ,, 對他說 
sW。 ,, 和他說 

Punti Colloquial. 

Ti kwo'-k^ii 俾過 { 巨 Give it to him. 

^Ni 少 ling ^kTi ^konf^ 你 同佢講 Speak to or with liiin. 

Fong) cTniii kan^ -kMi 放 iSf 近 1 巨 l、"t it close to him- 
The following' soniencos can lie used in bo^li dialects. 

; Tj ,k=i tuk, ftii^teH liead to liim., - 

'ng'O jino (Icon 與 我無干 

It is nothing to me. 
,yan ^mo yilc, |!^Afffi?m. Of no advantage to man. 
向他去 Co to him. 
K^ap) ^ts'iu Hi .kung* .yan 糸 《錢嬰 >^ 工人 Give money to the workmen. 


The accnsativtf is easily rocog-ni/ed by the Yerh, wLich in most in- 
stances precedes llie object. In collocjuial, niid in negative senteucas of 
the I'tcrary stylo, the oltject soinotimes precedes the Yerl>* 

Qrammak of the Chinese Lakciuaok, 

The Noun. Accusafice. Vocalire. Ablative. 

Pnnti CoUoqniah 

'Ng-o oi) ; ni 我愛你 I love yo\i. 

-Ngo (fan fiV ^ni 我 尔 I order you. 
Court Dialect. 

sNgan 'tsz (td fiii' 'liu 叙子都 f《 了 All fhe money is spent. 

They carried 

off all the horses, pig's and cattle. 
r>. The object belore the verb. 

^Ngo (cM pat, oi^ 矛免 之不^ & I do not like him. 
MP ,chi ^nang ^hang' 未之能^^ Not able to effict it. 

Tho'e is no existence of such a tiling-. 

The vocative is seldom expressed. In writings ^fu 呼, 'yii 也, ; ii 
and in colloquial (0 阿, (" B^, (tsoi 哉, &c. occur most frequently. 
Fu'- <fu 3cPf- Father ! 

(i M ! 伊 i ^來 Come here, Sir I 
^Hing tai^ ,ii X^S^ Brethren ! . 

A talc, 

阿德阿 Atak ! or wlien in distress, ^Long Jcwan (o 
Ml^^i^ my husband! 


The ablativo is expressed in as many wnys as in English. 

1. By Prepositions ; 

2. By words expressing' the passive fi)rm of the verb ; 

3. By words assuming the nature of Prepositions ; and 

4. By tik〕 的 &c. 
jYau jing kvvok, Joi 由 英國來 
Tbz' ^Heung (kong 自 香港 

,Vo shat, ,yau 以 刀毂人 
佢 搭船來 
佰 打路來 

2. Pi- sjan ^sheung 

3. -KHi tap, .sliiin .loi 

4. ^Kam tik^ 

He comes from England. 
From Hongkong. 
To kill with a sword. 
Injured ])y men. 
lie came by ship. 
He came by land. 
Of Gold. 
Of silver. 


Grammar of the Chinese Langvagf" 

The Noun. T)iminiitices. Adjectives. Positive. 

The preceding" sentences are variousl}^ expressed in tlie Punti Collo- 
quial, e.g. 

Injured by men. 

'Hai jing kwok, ; loi k6) 系英 國來。 旣 They come from England. 
Yung' (to shkt cyan 用 刀殺人 

Killed witti a sword. 

Diminutives are expressed \}/ 'tsai 仔, sai) jjtlH, 'siu 小 and a few 
other characters. 

;r6 'tsai 刀仔 A small knife. 

Sai,(kil"k ,舰 間屋 A small 

'Nii 女仔 A little girl. Sai) (sL/Ln ^.fflllf A hillock, [house. 

Tipj ,, 碟 f 子 A small plate. 'Siu 'tse /J、 女且 A little (young) 
^Seung',, 箱仔 A small box. miss. 

Adjectives. Posithe. 
1. Adjectives are indicated by their position, as : 一 
H6 jan 好人 A good man. (9) 
Ko' jan hai^ (h6 個人 f 系好 That man is good. 

Adjectives are formed with tik ^ 令, ke' 卩旣, and (ho 可 e. g. 
%h tik, 好的 Good. Ok, tik, 惡薛 Bad. 

When tik, 的 (Punti Coll : ti^ fj 也) and ke' P 旣 are used without 

a substantive, the meaning- is not always so obvious ; for tik, 的 when 
following adjectives expressing- space, form, colour, quality or condition, 
sometimes converts tlie positive into the comparative. It is then pro- 
nounced (t.i as : ― 

; Ni(clmng i) (ni (bin ifong' (ni 你 中意呢 房呢 Do you like 
this room. - 
'Ng-o .'m .cliuno; ko' ^kan ; oi, .kan ^siu ,ti j oi^ (k:'"i tai^ (ti. 

^唔中 意個 間 愛間 小的 愛閬 大 的 

I do LOt like that; I like one smaller, I like one larger. 

.Ch^eung M ft A little longer. Hak, (ti 黑&令 A little darker. 
(H6 (ti ^i>J A little better. 

^Mai ko' pak, tik, 買筒白 fKl 布 Purchase that white calico. 

'yau pak, (ti hnh (ni 你 有白& 令有呢 Have you any whiter ? 

'Yau plng-^ tik, ,yan iiV kin' 'ni 有翁的 人 要見你 There is a sick 
man who wishes to see you. 
In another sentence the quality of the adjective is much more ob- 
vious, e. g. 

Note 9.— ^H6 好 is used as an Adverb ; -K'ii sbang- ,wai f 巨 行 
爲好 He conducts himself well. 416 'kau 好; A Veiy long. 


Adjfctices. Positive. Compdraiivi 

C. D, Tfti^ tdi^ tik, ; fong' ^tsz 大大 A very large house. 

Tik) 的 is omitted wlieii two Adjectives are put tog-etlier, as: FiV 
kw'ai) svan ^ 負人 A rich and honorable ]>erson. 、 

In the Canton Colloquial kt? 口既 is more; frequently used to express 
the Adjective, e. //. 

-Yau ,ts^iii k<? jaii 有錢^^^人 A wonKliy 腦 u, 
'Jvwni kwat, k (? cyan 

詭譎 P 旣人 A crotty M。、v. 
? -M (h6 ke\shiit, Wi? 唔 說, i Bncl Lmo-uMge. 
'IIo iV 司扉 detestable. (Ho o? k(V 可愛 ('旣 Amiable. (IIo Lau^ 
ke' jyan 可恨 Pjl^t 人 A hateful person. 

2. Comparatice. 

2. The comparntive and superlative are expressed by characters 
corrcspoutiiijo- to our more and most. 

J'osiiive. Comparative. Superlative. 

'n(、, it} Good. Kung' lid 更好 Better, CliP lio 至-好 The k,st. 

-Mi 笑 Beautifu]. Kang' hm 更美 More Leautii'ul. Clii' or Idk, 'mi 

至 or 極美 Most beniitiiul. 

The comparative is also expressed in the following- way. 

(Ts(z ,yan (pi ; ya" kang) ok^ 此人] rfcf 皮人篇 :惡 This mau is 
woi'i^e than that. 

sXgo pP (li(、> yat, ,ti kom= (to ?^] 尔好 ——6 令 ?^|]' 多 I am a lit- 
tle better tliVu you, 

我 J:kK 你更好 I 議 better than you. 

tui^ kang-' 4i6 我 《尔才 [j 對 f 尔更好 lu con] par- 
ing ourselves, you are better lliau I. » 

更 is sometimes followed by (ii' 於, as :— 

(Kam yat, Ivan-' 4io (ii ; ts'm (t(i'n 今 H 更好於 fij" 天 This day is 
finer than the day before yesterday. *" 

The character expressing the comparative, omitted, as: ― 
pi' ; t(i (k<、 你 上匕他 1^;^ You are taller than he. 

Note V.—As a Verb; Ho' ok, 好惡 To love wickedness. 

,, slihi; 好善 To love the good. 

As a Su1>st,rintive ; 'Kl'i ki? 'ho .'m tsiik, 'kong- tH^li^L f(f Pu /il 
ilis virtue ;g-<judnes?) is 】K>t u'orth Sjicukinii' of. 

( ) 

Gram M An of the Chinese Language. 

A il'n'cli ves. Comijoraiive. 

(Kung tsuimt;^ i>P pat^ talc, fining- (fi'i (cl】( yiing' 

工匠》 k 不 揭農夫 

之用 The usefulness of" a mechanic is not to be coiu|iitre(l 
with that of the luisbandinan. 

titj {at, 越 i 逢 also expresses the comparative, \\t^ fit〕 4i6 越 tjij^ 
Still better. 

tit, fVii) iit^ 4i6 M'i^M ^ The sooner the better. 
II ok, (shfu】g pat, 'ho pi* (s'ln jsliang 

學 生不可 先生 

The pupil 

cannot be eomparojcl with liis】n:ist:er, i. e. l]e is inferior to Ins master, 

€• D. Cht? ko) ^na W viiii- ^mi ^£ 箇]: 那暂 j 叉美 Tliis is m。re 
beautiful than tlint. 

AVo hai^ lewd) ^ngau 禾 fife 貴於銀 Peace is more precious tliau 

MP ^yau timn <u 'ts^z "^有 難 -於此 There have never been diffi- 
culties worse thn ii tliese. 

ip ^to li^ pat) tsiik, 愈多 M 不足 The more be has, the less he 
is satisfied. 

^Ta)i (sam ii^ ii^ ^^'A^、 愈^^ Lamentinj^- ipoi'e and more. 

jj' RiV ii' P Mi^^^S The quicker the easier. 

,, (b'l jts^e fVara 愈》 、/牟 Still more dissolnte. 

愈久 愈難, The lono-er tlie more difficult. 

,, lik, ii; timg、i.ii; pai' chP 愈 力愈動 而愈 不至 The oveuter 
the exertion and excitement the less the chance of att;iinii)<'- the 

.Yau okj 允惡 More wicked. ; Yau kwnP 允怪 More str;iii-e 

Yik, 'ho 益好 Better. • 

jKiiig (sz pat, 'liQ pui' 'li 寧死 不可背 Si RatUer die than oppose 

*Ts^z pat, cil cpi kom' hak, it 匕不々 口彼 p]t 黑 This is li-hter tlian tluit. 

; U 'sliui yik, .sham ji =fo yik, it, 女口 7] 〈益」 深如 火 熟 If the 
- "water become deeper and the lire hotter. 

Pat) cil 不如, pat, ycukj 不若, mok, yeuk, 莫若 also express 
ratlier, better. 

Pat, rji chin) 'sz 不如 戰死 Better die fig-hting-. 

" yeuk, pat, Jni 不若乂 率 Bettei' not come at all. 
Mokj yeukjjkai hu' ^M^ft^^X lii^ti'er depart altogetliei'. 

„ til; ((jlii (kiuiy 莫-大 < ^功 No ^Teater jjicrits. 


Grammar of tub Ciiinrsk Langt'ac.k. 

A d 'jccti CCS. Com para t i ve. 

Sentences fonaed with ,ning 寧, pat, ; U 不 口, pat, yuukj 不若 

and 111 ok, yeukj 莫若 are in general pi'ticeded by olhers siig-gestiiiy or 
ex[)ressiug' sentiments of a diri'eieut tenor. 

The comparative is also frequently exp'essed by (to 多 many, jil 

0^ more, surpluss, Ibny' 况 more, how much more, 'cli'un ^1 still 
turtlier, much more, 

Ti (to sliap, ko) 俾多 十滔 Give ten more, or in addition. 

Sli;q))— (to jun 十多年 More than ter^ }'eais. 

Viik, -yinx jii cyan ^^杂人 More tlinn one luuidml men. 

'N-o slu; pit, h':?, cbo fon-' hn ,u 我是必去何卩^^尔可二 I must be 
off, how niiicli more iiiu—t you. 

(Ch'an (tsz '.yau 绍 I i 比有才 How much more is this mnn talented. 

P;it, li;? 'iig- ,k:m ^下五 jj* Not less than five catties, 

fK(、j sliiMj>' pak, 'p'ui 勝 ^ Move than a Lutidred times liiglier. 
Tlie coinpanttive is implied in tlio following' yciitences. 

^Jli (kJj ^s:im cli'ek^ /^S 01 ~ Raise it three feet Inghoi-. 
'丄 \i liai^(ko yat, cli'ekj'f^t ~ '/^ You are one cubit taller. 
<Tuii yat, ts'iin' — "寸 One inch shorter. 

In runti Colloqniiil the folluwiiig- ex|n'essions are cliiefly use J to 
denote the coaipanitive. 

^K'ii hiii^ 4io kwo) higo f 巨 j^f 好過我 He is better tliau I. 

h 取 錢好 better that way. 

Ku) n^unp: ko) ,van ko〕 'ho (m 1^ l^dgj A^fl i^J Which is 
the better ol' tli(、 r.wu ? 

Ur, xnun' iit, (1"、 越悛越 The slower the better. 、 

《-Ngo ^niiig' 'sz 戏 七 I would rather dio. 

ft! is cliiefly usorl in connection with kwo) as :— - 
kwo) (ii ^ao-o 大 1§ (10) 於我 Older than 1. • 

]N\)TE 10 ― Care must l)e taken not to confound the meaning' of Kwo^ }^, 
when used in a different sense from tlui precedino-. 

It is used 1. —— as a Verb, as : — Kwc^ (sliui }^ 水 To pass through or 
over the water ; 

2, ― as an Auxiliary Verb clenotinp;' past time, as : ― Jlanj^* kwo' 

Passed or has passed alon;j,- ; 

3. — as a Particle, denoting' the impnrutive mood; as : ― (Pi kwo^ hi go 

Grammak of the Citinksf, Lancttaok. 

Adject i res. Suiitrhi t / ct>. 

o. Svperlative. 
The Superlative is expressed by 

Chi' 至, tsui) 最, si 麵 2 甚, (tsiin 儘 and tsun^ 盡, ts'it, 切, 
(shaui 深, tsiit, 絶, ( shii 珠, Idk, 極 and a fyw others. 
ChP slun= M# The best ; Chi' 4i6 至 do. 至德 CliP talc, 
Extremely virtuous. Clii) ^kung- i' 35,^^^ Most righieous. 
Kik, (mi 極美 Extremely beautiful. 
Shau^ yuk, kik, 'I 受辱 矣 Very much disg'race(l。 
Tsui' sniin 最難 Extremely diiHciilt. 

,, ckan 最緊要 Blost important. 
Sliam""n 甚遠 Very fnr. Sh 漏、 fi 甚非 Very wrong'. 
Pat, cming (eld sham- -ya 不明 之甚也 Extremely obacnvo, 
'Tsun J—' 儘應 Very proper. 
Ts'it, oP ^k'ii 巨 Loves 】iini extrernoh'. 

(Oi tiling') chP ts4t, 哀 痛至切 Exceedingly painful. 

深重 Very im])ortant. 

爲可愛 Extreme]}' amiable.' 
I* 無味道 Not tlie least tnste. ' 
I* 屬可憐 Vevy Inmentable. 
'Hoi ts4t, 'bin ii^ 凯 切 l]$ 諭 Very distinct orders. 

從 重究辦 Very sfaverely prosecuted. 

Ki' Sm 翁厳 Veiy sevore. 

.San lai- ,sbam — 新例森 The now rei^'iilations are vei 了 i'o"s. 
qian |k, 狼. (IJWaVlmn 好' 得 t《 Very good. 
^Lang- tak, (Imii |^ f 导 ^ Very cold. 
-Ni 'kfmi 'Iian (sam 你藝 1:、 

IIovv liai'sli you are ! 
(To tak, 'han 多得狠 Very many. ' 

3^ 我 Give that to me ; 

4. ― as a Noun, denoting' foult, error, as:— TAP kwo' 大過 

Blunder. Yan- "iii kc? kwo〕 g 忍你" '旣 )^ Confess your fuiilt; 

5. — as an Adjective, as: ― 'Yau kwo^ 有) faulty ; ami 

6. ― as an Adverb, meanini^' onhj, as : -- Pat, kwo) yat^ .kaii 斤 

Only one cattj. 


Grammar of the Chtnkse Lanoitaok. 

Adject i ves. S u perla t i ce. 

T(ui2 (to [^多 Too much or too many. 

.Ho t^^ai^ ^mo 4io Jin 何太 無可憐 How very Tinmorciiul ! 

^Mu jts'ing t(iU2 sham' 無 1' 啬^^ Very unkind. 

Ti'ii' pat, jtHmg 大不同 Very different. 

/Tai' yat) miu; ~ 'j^ Most admirable, most excellent. 

'Ting 'ho 項好 Very good. Sbeung^ 'bo 上好 do. 

8hi'ung- 》at,) 'tang 上一等 Of the best quality, 

Tikj ^mang- t,ik) Very fiivious. 

'ilo (k;、u 好久 and jLeung =kau 良久 Very long. 

41u (to S 午多 Very many. 

A curious specimen of the Chinese idiom or Sinicism is 'hb 好, when 
followed by the negative pat, expressing- veiy, e. <j. 

'Uo pat, £p(ing' (On 好 不平安 Very peaceful. 

好 不和睦 Extremely harmonious. 

,, (on lok, 好 不安樂 Very pleasant. 

,, (Seiing sun' 好不 才目" fj^ Very good. 

When 'bo 好 is followed by mut„ not, net at all, the meanino- is 
different. (11.) 一 ° 

4io mut, jleung (sam ^J^M-^Cj) No .conscience at all, 

" chP hi' 好择' "^氣 Very irresolute, no firmness of purpose. 

,, tu^ Hi 好沒 ® 理 Very unreasonable, no firmness of 

, Tsiitj -mi 絶美 Extremely beautiful. 

It^ pat, kwo' ^^不 Extremely hot. 

cYan pat, sliing-' sbtV 人 不勝數 An exceedingly liirg-e number of men. 
Ok, pat, sliing' 惡不勝 Exceeding-ly wicked. 
5M0 'sho 'bo (kfi 

無 所可加 

Cannot be exceeded. 

]N"oTE 11. — Giitzlaff and Preinare s:i_y that niut, is used in the same 
sense as pat, when folio win o' <ljo 好. Tint all the exaniTilws 
given by Preinare, show the reverse ; whilst GiitzlalF fails to 
give a sing-le sentence to coiifinii his assertion. Both express 
"eery:" but one <^ives a 丄' usid", and the other a iiegutive 
meaning-. 。 


Grammar of the Ghinese Language. 

Adjectives. Superlatice. The Prononn. 

The Numerals sliap, 十, piik, 百, (ts'in 千 and man' 萬 fre- 
quently denote the superlative degree. 

Shap, (fan (to tse' 'ni 十 分多謝 你 I am extremely thankful to you. 

jTsMn man' pat, jliang- 千萬不 行 Do it l>y no means (it is ex- 
tremely dangerous.) 

A few compounds expressing the superlative degree are 】】('i'e added 
of which only one occurs in colloquial. 

^(Jh4u jkw^an 超都, ,ch'\n nt, 起越, (Cli^u oli'euk, 超_1^, cli'ouk, 

lap, 卓立, cli'euk, tsiit, 卓 系"^ , cli'euk, ixt, 卓越 and a few others 
all express, to surpass, to excel &c. 

The following are tlie most common chavactevs used in Punti Collo- 
quial to denote the superlative degree. 

至遠 P 旣山 

CW〕 'iin k6) ^shan 
■Un tak^ tsai^ 
Tdi^ tak) tsa? 


Kik, ok, k (? ,yan 極惡 人 

Shin' pat, sliing^ 善不勝 
十分 唔中意 
, ydt, <li6 ke' 第一 好, 


The most distant mountain. 
Too far, extremely far. 
Far too 】fu'ge. 

Too liig-h, liif>'lj in tlio extreme. 

Extremely wicked man. 

Extremely virtuous. 

I dislike it extremely. 

Of superior quality (No 1,) 

Superior quality of rice, 

Sheung^ ka^ JLIM Tlie highest, prii^e. 

These examples will suffice to g'uide the student in the nse of the 
superlative degree. The rednndancv of the Chinese 】;汀1;:!:"8,2:(% as contain- 
ed in books, ^ve^r]y contrasts with the poverty of the Colloqninl, on, 
which Recount I hnve 7'f^]ieHtpd the few clinractoj's fm'mini^ tlie 8U])ei'lu- 
tive degree, as we meet with them in the Punti Colloquial. 

13. The Pronouns. • 
1. The Personal ^ronoun. 

1. Cliani- 朕 and ,ii "j^ are only used by tlie emperor foi the roy- 
al We, Om'se】vf^;5. 

«Kwa cyan 人 the lonely, solitary, wliohasnot hisequal^ Wo, Oursolves. 

, " ^^仁 the only benevolent, virtuous par excellence^ We, Oar- 

Grammar of the Ciiinkse Language, 

The I'runovm. 2 he Personal Pronoiin and Substitutes. 

The 1. person singular is expressed by ^ng-o ^]^, ^ng 吾', ^ii 

予, > fS, (m 甫, kau' 俗 of which the first three are those 
cliieiij u.<ed in books and conversittion. 

or J. 

jSlian ^ used by a minister of state. 
-L6 (伍 ^^夫 An aged, venerable person 
'Pun }).V ,t'oug- 本若 P 堂 

,, "I'l 

,, cshirig- 
rill; Ik? 

llokj jsliang' 
cMun " 
-M;in " 


I, the governor. 
I, the hoppo. 
I, the prefect. 
I, the magistrate, 
I, the assistant magistrate. 
I, iKsed by a citizen to his superior. 
I, the foreign mei chaiit. 
I, your humble younger brother. 
I, your pupil. 
I, your pupil. 
I, the humble writer, 
tbe youth. 

,kNVc.n 1)62 本關邰 


, 後生 . 

Ihe last five terms are chiefly in use among relatives and literary 

your unworthy handmaid. 


'I'^^n- ts'ip, 貝 J 妾 I, 
n-i ts(''p, I, 
Fiin^ cyan gIL>^ I, the prisoner. 

cSd .ts^oi 奴才 I, your slave (used by a Tartar, when addressing' 
His lAhijesty.) 

^Jsui^ cyan 罪人 I, the sinner, tbe criminal, and 

-Ngai 壤 I, the ant, are expressions frequently occurring in 

petitions and letters of a similar tenor. 

^Siu ; 1 /J>|i The little child, and -- 

I'at) (siu ^肯 The degenerate one, stand for I, and are used by 
sons wheu writing- to their parents. 

1, the little daughter (I, your doughter.) 

,, tb'- 乂 J 、道 The little Tauist, f , , „ , , 

'人 stnncl lor J, the in'iest. 

cP^nn to^ %M The poor Tnui.t, ( 


Grammar of the Chinese Lanouage. 

The Pronouns. The Personal Pronoun and Suh.stitiites. 

(Si& ; nai I, tlie little 画, | ^^^^^ 化1' I, the 画. 

jP'an tiiai 貧/^ I, the poor nun, ( 
Pul? man-servant. jNu slave, and 

spc£ maid-servant, are also frequently used for I by inferior officers 

and their families when addressiug their superiors. 


The plural is formed in the same manner as the plural of Nouns, hj 
tlie characters ; mun 們, 'tang 等, and in Punti Colloquial by the cha- 
j.jxcter 也 with and without ^hau 口 on the left, e. g. 
sWg'o ti; 我驰 we. 

Second Person. 

1 爾, -ni 你, Hi 汝 and the more obsolete forms Hi 女, -flui 乃, 

yeukj and -ii 女 fJ all express thou or you. ' 

4. Substitutes for The Personal Pronoun. Second Person. 

With the exception of -ni these Pronouns are seldom used in 
general conversation, and a variety of" conventional terms aie substituted 
for the same. The most common of whicli are : ― 

/rsiin ka' Sir, 「 ^;'^;; ; yan 大人 magnate, freqner.tly 

Sin (shang ^^生 Teacher, used by the common people in writinf;;' to 
! Scung (kung 相公 Sir. \ f 蘭/ 甲 and relatives, must not he con- 
o ,( ° ^ V I lounded with the address ot persons oi 

Ki? sheuiio- i^_C Sir. ^.rank, when it means Your Excellency. 

Tap (hing 弟!^ Brother. 
A' (ko 哥 Do. 

A, 'tse MS 組 Sister. • 

^L6 tai^* cyan 大人 and -L6 tai' ,fu 老大夫 are terms chiefly ap- 
plied to venerable persons of rank. 'Lo (sin (shang 老先生 
Venerable Sir, or teacher, is frequently heard in polite society. 

^Lo t^ai' t.c;'d) 老太木 is an appellation often given to a ven- 
erable lady of rank ; it also means venerable superior. 

^L6 (sz 老 !^市 Venerable instructor. 

^Shan lu- fl$3? Spiritual father, is the term by wliicli Eom. Catholic 
" priests ore iidilresscd by tliefr converts. 

Gcutlcinen of ic'.- i'ecUibilily. ul liU'iiiry rauk^ and filling the inleiiuv 


Gram M AH ok tiik Chinese Lanouage, 

Pronouns and ISubiditidt's. 

offices of government, ai-e addressed ; L(、 老爺, Venerable father. A 

private secretary to a !謂 darin, councillors &c. are called (Sz j6 師爺 
Instructing fiither. ( 

An Assistant District Magistrate TilP .yo 太爺, Great Father, Sire. 
A Prefect, Sub-Prefuct and District Maudaria Tid' ^15 太老 
Great venerable Sire. 

A Governor General, Governor, Admiral &c. TaP jan 大人 Your 
Excellency. " 

A King, ,Ts'in sui) je f 歲爺 Your Majesty. 

An Emperor, Man^ sui) ^ye 离歳爺 Do. 

Shing' ^chii 聖主 Sacred or August Lord, Your Ma- 
Pa?:? 陛下 Your Majesty. fjesty. 

B rigid Pottern, Means vou. 

jT'oi fun^ 合範 Exalted Pattern do. 

,Ngi'in fan* IH^a Strict Pattern do. 

兄顏 Brother s Countenance do. 
/Poi cTigan "i^ 顔 Exalted Countenance do. 

cl) iXig-un Worthy Pattern do. 

^L6 jt'oi ; t(oi 老台臺 Venerable Sir ' do. 

All these tenns are substitutes for the second person thou and yoxty 
and must be used in polite conversation uad eleg-iiut writing'. 

5. Punti Colloquial* 

In Punti Colloquial -ni 你 for the sing'ular and ^ni tP 你 口丄也 for 
the plural are the most current expressions for thou and you. To make 
too much use of the plural, is not considered elog'ant. Whilst the stu- 
dent, therefore, should einJeavour to acquaint himself with all the col- 
loquial (or vulg'ar) terms in use 請 oiig the people, he should nevertheless 
take care to get such a command of the language^ as to be able to con- 
verse with educated people with case. 

6. Personal JPronowis* 

The words in general use to express tlie third Personal Pronoun are 

其, (t(i 气 他, (i 伊,; kHi 渠/ k(ii 佢 and ,chi 之. shut, 其 

g^, IIe, she or it says. cK^i (chung 其中 Among them. Wai^ ,k^i 

(sho Ho' 爲其 所造 Made hy him. J 伊 and /i (tang 伊等 are 
seldom used in conversation and polite literature j tliey occur more fre- 
quently in lef>*u! papers and edicts. 



Pi ononns. 3. Femmal Fronoutu. Possessive Pronovns. 

As a Pronoun ^chi 之 is chiefly used in the objective case, as : ― 
(Tin meng- ,ch'i 天 1^ 之 Heaven decreed it. 

-'N'i^'o (clif (cW 我知之 I know it. I-IU) (cW 去之 Remove it. 

'Ta (chi 打之 Strike liiin. ^Yau ^clii 有之 It is so. 

/JV:m 與, (kung (slmn 身, (ki 已 aud shP 是 stand fre- 
quently for it. 

fTs'an jloi |fl^ 來 He has come (himself). (T(iti (tsz ^kung- ,kang 

夭 子躬辦 The Emperor ploughs himself. 'Siu .van 'fan shP 小人 

是 The inferior man reverses it, 'Kong- 'clie 講者 He who speaks. 

In Puuti Colloquial -RHi t 巨 is almost exclusively used to express 
the thii'd Personal Pronoun. 

; KMi wn' 佢話 He said. ^K^ii (tim ko' ,tang { 巨淳 (@ 燈 He lights 

tbe lamp. ^K'ii (ts4iig 'lU ; loi 佰 請你來 He invites you. 

; KHi (f''m 4ii 佢歡喜 He rejoices. ,Ham q"i M P 咸佢來 Call him. 

Chuk, fat, 'k'ii 責 巨 Eeprove him. 

7. Possessive Pronouns. - 

The Pos?essive Pronoun is expressed by the Personal Pronoun with 
or without certain additional particles, as : ― 

; Ngo ^m5 <ts(an ki) sun' Joi 我母親 寄信來 My mother will 
send a letter. 

^Njfo kwok, 我國 My King-dom. 

Wi K? (t6 你 |$>爹 Your father. • 

^ Ng-o tP cwong shcung- 我 的皇上 Our August Emperor. 

-N'l tP fo' ,shu 你的 部書 Youv book. 

'K^ii ti: (tsz ; Mi \%\\^-f''^ His children. 

Kiit) tak, 厭德 His virtue. 

,, uk, 朦屋 His house. 

8. Suhstittdes of the Pos,wssive Pronouns. 

My, your or their father. 

F.V (ts'an ^cEl My fatlier. 

(K" (h— 家兄 My Of our elder brotlior. 

'She tai; ^ Our younger brother. 

A iiusbami spenkiuo- of his wife, instead of saying : ― 

sNgo -lo 我老婆 My wife, would say : ― 

Noi"* ijan 內人 The person within. 


Grammar of the Chinese LAf^ouAOR. 

PossesHiee Fronotms. In l>unH Colloquial. 

Nop shat) 內室 The one within the house, 
^Ts^in Jong" The mean one within the house. 

Tak, ^fu 特婦 The lonely woman. 
^Sluin (ts^ai 山^^ My clownish wife. 

For my relation a Chinaman would say 'Sho (tgCan My house. 

PaP Ilk, 傲屋 My vile dwelling. 
PaP kwok, ft 國 My vile country. 
'JVin^ sing》 m 姓 My mean surname. 

9. In Punti ColloqviaL 
The Possessive Pronoun is formed by kc^ P 旣 as : ― 
^NfTo ke^ ,t^oi 我 P 旣疆 My table. 一 

^i\go ke^ fu^ ^ts^an k6〕 ,sbam 我 P 旣父親 P 旣衫 My father's g^arment, 
"Ngo ke^ ^fa ^iin 我社也 P 旣花園 Our flower garden, 
ke^ filing tai^ 你 1 也 口旣兄 i 弟 Your brethren. 

佢", 朋友 His friends. 
Your father. 
Your wife. 

Your son. 

Your lionoraMe conrttry. 
Your dniii»'liter. 
Your n()T)le a<^'e ? 
Your fraf^rant name. 
Your lofty surname. 
― 、 、Nf k6)" 你 n 旣 Thine. qvTi f 巨" 旣 His. 

s 丄、 Tg'o k6) 我 她口旣 Ours.' tP k 你: ]#旣 Yours &c. 

The first ke' may be omitted ; and slioukl be, where we liuve to deal 
witli the better classes of the people. 

,10. Demonstrative Pronoiins. 

The Demonstrative Pronoun this is expressed by (ts^z |f^[^, (sz |[)f , 

shP ;浩, 兹, che^ 這, cVi 其, ,fu 夫 and the Punti ^ni tP j/]^ 

的 and (m' tP ^Mfl)! ; , 力", ^clie 者, (pi 彼/ 那 and (ko 個. 
The plural of the Pronouns is seldom expressed. 

Ling^ (tsiin 令尊 


;t(ong' ^掌 
,, ; long' 令郎 
Kwai' kw'ok, 貴國 

L— 2 會變 

KwaP (kang- 肯炭 
(Fong craing 芳名 
<K<、 sing' 高姓 
^Ngo ke' lic^lyi M 


Grammar of the Chinese Laxguaoe. 

Demon strati ce Pronouns. 

11. Examples. 
(Ts(z (yan mong^ jliang 此 人亲行 This man leads a bad life. 
,, 'tang ok, ,t'o it 匕等: 惡徒 This kind of worthless fellows. 
,, (cW wai; ; yd it 匕之舊 ll 也 This is what was said. 
Yeuk, (cW 'ts'z 若知此 It he know this. 

JJ 'ts(z 於此 In this place. TsoP ^ts^z 在此 do. ,U (ts(z 如 
it 匕 Like this ; thus. 'Ts'z hau' it 匕 後 After this (henceforth). , 
Tsz- liau; 嗣後 After this time. 

Sz ^Jf is mostly used in reference to events previously related. 

Sz ; slii 斯時 At this time or moment, 

(Sz jan (clii (tsz 其厅 人之子 This man's child. 

大約如 斯' It is in general thus. 

(Sz sz; 斯眷 This affair. ,Ch4u (sz ts^ik, (sz 朝浙夕 斯 He 
is here (at tliis place) in the morning- and eveniiii^. 

fTsz fung'a 兹^^ Received at this moment. 

; rsz ^sam lit, 兹三月 This third month. 

Jvam (tsz 今兹 

Now, at this time. 
Tsoi^ ftsz 在兹 Here, at this place. 
gTVungftsz^^ ^兹 From this time. 
,U shP In this time. 

(TongshP(cl:ii;slii 當是之 B 寺 AttListime(referring to events just related.) 

Shi^ ku^ ^ on this account (Ijence) 

12. The ])vecedin2:' .sentences ai'e chiefly used in books ; the follow- 
ing are partly Court Colloquial, and partly in the literary style. 

Cbe' W ^yan 淳俾人 This man. Che' ^slii 运 0变 This time. 

Cli(? yeung- i^^^ In this Tnanner. Ch6) ^tanj^ ^H^* This. 

^K'i ,yan 其人 This or that man. ,K'i ye' 其夜 That nig-ht. 

^Chc and (sho and ^Jf are Pronouns e-xpressing the Demon- 
strative and Relotive Pronouns in tlie same character. 

The former is only used in the literary style, the latter is frequently 
lieard in conversation. 

jTs'ung' -ng'o 'che 從我者 Those who follow me. 

r ^clie pat, 4io tak, ,kim 二者不 可得兼 These two cannot be 
had tog-etliei\ 

ShP ^iigo 'sho oi- ,c]ii jan. 是戏所 愛之人 These are those 
whom I love (my beloved). 


Grammar of the Chintkse Language. 

Pronouns, lielative Pronouns, 

^Che used for that and those, as : ― 

Ha 11^ ^ng'o 'cho ; ngo yik, lian^ 、chi 恨我 者我亦 恨之 I hate those 
that hate me. 

ShP ; ni ^sho tso^ tik) 是你 所做的 It is that which you made. 

(Pi ,sLi 彼時 At that time. 

T:'ii) 麵, :loi (cli(5 shP 'pi 帶信來 者是彼 It is that man who 
brought the letter. 

(Nii ; si" hau' ^r)B 寺候 At that time. ko) jan ^[^ 個人 That man. 

jWai and swai 維 when combined with jslu B 寺, time, become 
Demonstratives, e. g. cWai sslil 維時 At that time. 

(Kam ; nin 今年 This (the present) year. 'Pun iit^ 本 月 This month. 

13. In C till ton Colloquial this and that are expressed by (Ni' ko' 
個, (ni tP PjKfe W tP 镝她, and (ko ko) 個個, as ••— 

但入呢 曙鋪頭 lie entered this shop. 

(Ni kin^ ^ye haP kik, hni ke' 呢件 If ill 龜美 ^ 旣 This is an ex- 
tremely fine tiling. 

ti^ ,yan liai^ (sai kwok, Joi ke= 卿!; 人係 西國來 P 旣 These 
Til en are from western countries. 

Ko) tP ? m 'ho 個她 唔好 That is not good. 

(Ko ko) jau liai; shat, 'sliau ok, 個 (固 人係 實首惡 Those men 
are truly wicked. 

Whea the Demonstrative Pronouns are used without a substantive, 
the plural ti^ Pijji is followed by ke' 卩旣, as : ― 
(Ni tP k (? 呢' 3#旣 These; Ko' tP k 個 Those. 

14. Relative Pronouns. 

These are ^slio j^/f and 'che ^* . 

P'ltj ^yau (slio (sz 乂、 有 所' S、 He must have something to think of. 

(Sho wai; sliin) 所謂善 That wliich is called g-ood. 

jYan (sho lok, • 人所樂 That in which men delight. 

'Ni 'sho yuk, 你所欲 That wliich you desire. 

'K4i (sho (i hii- 'c\\(\ 柜所 倚賴者 The one in whom he confides. 

sMo (sho pat, jWai 無 所不爲 There is notliiDg- that lie would not do. 

P. C. ― ; Mo (sho pat, .clu 無 所不知 

There is uotLing* that he does 
not know (omniscient). • 


Grammar of thk Chinese Languaor. 

Relative Pronouns. Literary Style. Puntl Colloquial. 

Jslh 'slio pat, ^nang 無 所不能 There is nothing vvhich he cannot 
accomplish (omnipoteut). 

(Sho .wai^clie ;ho sz; 所^§ 者何事 What is it, that he is doing ? 

、 Sh? cslio ; i ,kun ; k(i (sho ; yau 酸其所 iil IS 其所由 Look 
at the motives by which he is guided, and the piinciples from which 
he acts, 

我所愛 之物件 The tiling's I want. 

^Ngo (sho lok, (clif cyan 我所 樂之人 The men I delight in. 

,Fan ,k^i ^sho 'yau 凡 其所有 All (that) he possesses, 

SSho (tong gbang f^)X m^~f To do that wliicli is proper. 

gFun ^sho ^biu cvau 凡所' 变^^ All with whom lie associates. 

Okj (cLi6 ^^者 The wicked, or lie, who is wicked. 

Sinn' " 靑卞 The virtuous, or those who are virtuous. 

Hok^ " ^i^^ Students, or those who study. 

^Slmn '^che ^ts'iin ^chi ^lin ^ja 山者泉 ^ 、源也 jMountains are 
the fountains of wells, 

fFi'i liiiu^ (cli6 sbiu^ kai) cvan ,cM chi), shin- sliut^ cjan ^clii sz^ ^ohc "Vcl 

夫孝 # 善繼人 之志畲 述人之 事者也 Filial piety consists 
in taithtully carrying* out people's designs and appropriately recording' 
their doings. 

Mi; 'yau bok, 'yeiing ^tsz W bl〕 ^clie -ya 未有學 養子而 后 

好 C 者" tlli There are none [no women] who first learn the nursing of 
cliildren and afterwards marry. 

,U cfecz ^che ctsoi k^ap, ; Vi ,shan ^clie 'yk 如此者 災及其 身者 
He who acts thus 、vii】 Iji'inj^;' calamity upon hi in self. 

Tlie Relative Pronoun is implied in tlie following sentences^ as : ― 

'Ngo ^yau (cW pat, 我 有之筆 The pencil I have. 

C. i).— JCi shiif, tik〕 (san "mm sbP (shat) (shau 4i6 其說的 新聞是 

實首好 The news he communicates is indeed very g'ood. 

C.-^Ynn k。) ,mun ,meno- kiu^ Atak, 有個 門徒名 叫 亞 德 
There "Wiis a disciple whcse nuiiie whs Atuk. 

There is none wiiose 

tal^Mit could l)e comp 講 d to his. 

15. I a Punti (3dIoi[uiid the Eelative Pronoun is expressed ia the 
following' manner. 

cPou- ch(an) ^ngo k6〕 haP n-oP kwolc, cjaa 帮葡我 "Kl^ 夕 國 

These who piUroiiize me, are fureigncn'S. 


Guam MAR or tiik Chinfse Lanouaok. 

llch,: 'rr rronouns. Uec'iprocal, rronouns. 

'Ng-o (sho (cliKi ke' ; yan 我 t^f I^Pflifc 人 The men (whom) 1 called. 

(Ch— • It'u? jxi =ye ? m haP 'huke^ 整爛 pjg 的野 唔係妤 
He who tore this, is not a good man. 

; Ngo ch^ut, sluu) ko) <kan uk), hai, 'hh ^kau (hi kc? 我出 世個間 
屋係好 久起嘅 

The house in which I was born, was erected long ago. 

担 棚你嘅 工夫係 

低 的人 He who obstructs your labour, is that man. 

llok, (lu ktV ha? ; yau :ts(in ke' jan 學呢的^>旣係有錢口旣 
Those who study this, are men of property. 

; Ng'o (shai k。) ,yaii ? m baP (ni tP k #| 使個 的 人 卩 g 係 呢 
的' 1! 龙 丄 require those men, not these. 

16. Becipracal Pronouns. 

These are tsz^ 自, (ki 巳, ^tsSm 親, ^kung* 躬, and ^sban 身; 

aiKl are combined in the following- manner, as : — tsz- (Id 自已; tsz- ^ka 

自 ',t, and 'pun (shrm 水身. They have no plural form, and the cLa- 
nicters employed to express the plural of Nouus and Pronouns cannot be 
applied to the Keciprocal Pronouns. 


^Sheung tsz; (Id 傷 自已 To injure one's self. 
Tsz? (k:'t ; loi 自 家來 He came himself. 
Tz' ,ka tso' 白 家做 He made it liimself. 

^Chiu wfin; 'pun ,slian 招唐 《身 To bring calamity upon himself. 

jK^i cts(an hiV 其親去 He went himself. 

'K^ii tsz' (Id ,m5 yat, k。) ,ts4n 1 巨自已 無 一個錢 He himself 
has not a single cash. 

-Ngo (lomg cHio sts'oi jnang- 我; ^ 弓無对 * 能 I am myself without talent. 
Tukj tsz^ yat) ; yan tsoi- 狗 自 ~ J[ 在 I am by myself. 

Mutual, each other, one another, are expressed ^by ^seung 氺"^ , 
^seung 互相 and tuP 對 . 


^Senng oP 相愛 To love one another. ^Seung if! 打 To 
fight witli each otlier. ^seung han- 互才 个良 To hate each other. 
(f^6m.i^? ,pong- 才 '目帮 To assist each otlier. (Seung ; wo muk, 互相 
禾口践 To live in mutual hurnioiiy. 


Guam MAR of tuk Chinese Languaor. 

Reciprocal Pronotms. Interrogative Fronouns. 
Sing^ s;ts(iug' (.seung ying^ 

性情相 iS Dispositions corresponding 

to eacli^other. 

FtV kwai) fSeung tui) 富 貴相對 Riches and honor go always 
together (correspond to each other.) 

They depend on each other. 

Tsz* 白互 Mutual reg-ard. 

There is little ditFerence between the preceding' pbvases and the 
Punti Colloquial. The K. Pronoun invariably follows the Personal ,)n> 


^Ngo tSK* (ki' kin' kwo) 'k'ii 我 自 巳 ||^過但 I saw him myself. 

^Ng-o tez; tak, ,nf ti^ \y6 我 g 已起得 呢的野 I can lift 

this myself. ^KHi (s6ung' nau' 但 招 閙 They scold one another. 
(IVan tso^ k6) 親儉^^ I made it myself. 

17. Interrofjatim Pronouns. 

jSliui 誰, sliukj f/t, and Jio 何, stand for who '? 山 o i [可, mat, 
^ye -^j^, and (pi'n tik, 邊的 for which and what ? 


jShui jts^ang- 'se 'ts^z 誰曾寫 it 匕 Wlio 1ms written this? 

^Shui (clU 'tsz ffl 之 f "Whose son is it? 

/Fau ; ni kiV (sMm sin'' cshui ,u 偷你 伴衫 是誰乎 Who stole 
your dress ? 

q^s'z mat, shf^ ; shui tik, 此-物 是誰的 Whose is this ? 

(Fi kwo' ^ya ,simi 俾過也 誰呢 To whom did you give it ! 

Shuk, ,cbf ,cbi 孰知之 Who 

cPi ^sam cyan shuk, tap 彼三 人 f 大 Who is the eldest of those 
three ? ^ 

Clio siiV shukj shano' (ho ,oi slnik, sham; 

可笑孰 甚可哀 孰甚 

Could any thin o- be more ridiculous or more lamentable ! 

SljP ; ho ; yan 是何人 Who is it ? cHo sz' 何事 What business ? 

,, ,, ku' 是何故 What is the cause ? 
Hot, 為, (hf 豈 and (I'n 焉 stand sometimes for Jio 何. 
^Kau ;wan ,lio ; yrm 交 還何人 Given to whom? 
:Ho jch'eung' 何長 What in the lengtli V 


(tRA-vimar or" THE Chinksii: Laxguaoe. 

Interrogative L^ronouns. Indefinite Pronouns. 

r!Io ku' f^fii What is tlij reason ? Why ? ^AVai ,ho pat, liU) ^^flf 

Why ? On what :u-;-oiint wouKl you not go? 

cii sho 如何, ycuk, Jio 若何 How ? In what manner ? 

-Ni i) jeuk, ; ho 你 若何 What is your opinion of it .'' 

Sz; Jio ; ii 'ts'z ^fiffP/Jt How is it, that lunttcrs have come to this ? 

rut. lun^- ,1.0 syau ^f^gfjf A Whosoever.'' Jlo ch^u= 何; 送 Wlieie I 
At what place 飞 

flaP mat, -ye sz^ 係 "{^ 野事 What is the matter ? 

-Ni oi) j)'in ko) jii 你愛 :: 曼 fH Which do you prefer ? 

《m %on- k^M), ,pin ko) ki? (ni 你講及 邀攝澳 Of which 
(whom) do you speuk / 

On what day do you come ? 
'Ni 'eai mat, S'e (ni f^^H^l^^i^/S What are you looking- at ? 

oi^ mat, =ye ,ni f>?/ft"|^ 野呢 What do you want. ? 
The preceding- twelve phrades are chiefly used iu Pimti CoUunuial : 
The following' are alternately, but seldom, heard, 

'Tsz (tseung- ;. ch'au 子縣! ^莓依 On whom will you depf^nd ? 

G. I).— 'Cham ,mo 怎麼, skim; (聽 甚麼 and shap, (蘭 f 卜奢 all 

signify what ;'' 'Na ku^ ^1^13, Sin- 'mi ko' tik, (shii 是 ^!!倾^ 力鲁 

Wliose book is it ? Wi ; mi'm (dii to^ (s6 sliam; (ino j/jtff^ 烦 5 望 些 fi^ 

What ai'e you capable of knowing ? 

18. In Puuti Colloquial there ; ire only a few Interrogative Pronouns in 
general use. 


Mat, cShui Joi (ni 也 誰來呢 Who has arrived ? 

Hai; (pin ko' cyan ke' 'Izau 係邊偭人"1^狗呢 Whose dog- is it ? 

Wai) mat, -ye 'la -kHi 爲^ 野打佢 Why (for what reason) do you 
strike kiiu ? 

Wai* mat, sz^ k(m) ; lai 爲^ 事幹 It What have you come for ? 
Hai; (pin ch'ii' jan 1^ 邊處人 Whence (from what place) is tliid man ? 
19. Indefinite Pronouns. 

All is expressed (1.) by Jan 凡, as: ― ; fVm (kam (chi jjan 凡- 今之人 
All the men of the present age. 

.Fan =yau hiit, hi' 'cbc 凡有 氣 者 All mortals. 、 
Tail- -fan 但凡 All that, or wliosuever. 



Indefin i te Pro nouns. 

<Chu ; En (k(、jm wi? 諸凡 1® 話 All said so. (12.) 

2. Cluing' 衆 as : ― Chung' sliiit, ,fan ; wan 衆說粉 All spoke cou- 

Cliung-^ cluim (t(ing cham^ nien-^ 衆威 聽朕命 All obey Our corn- 
Chung' (sii ,tam =po 衆須 保 All require security. [mands. 
'KwA pat) tikj d 訓 g) 寡不献 衆 A- few would not resist a multitude, 

3. ,Chii as: — (Chii fkung- All you gentlemen. 
,Uhu sz^ 諸%^ All affairs. 

4. Shii^ (13.) 庶 as:— SMi〕;Fmin 庶民 All the people. 

5. ^ as :— Van ; kAi Jiino- tai; 7 a 人皆. J^j 弟也 All men 
Man; mat, (k;\i ^shang 

萬 物皆生 All tilings grow. [are brethren. 

6. K'oi' , (14.) 10{ as :— Yat, k'ei) ~ Altogether. 

7. /ro 者 P as :— sYan (t,d ^kom (kong' 《人奢 |^ 嗽講 All j-eople speaking 

8. (Kii # as :— ,Ku cheuk, 考 All are l i-ht. [the same way. 

9. cH5\ra 咸 as :— ,Ham (kwai hn 咸歸你 All revert to you. 

10. (Ts(im 金 as :— (TVim ^p, ^:f5jJ All signed. 

11. ; Ts'ai ^、 as :— Ts^ai cliHit, All issued forth. 

12. H5p,- W\ as:— Hop, ,ka 闘家 The whole family. 

13. Kung^ 共 as :— Kung^ k;ii) 共 計 The whole amount. 
M. Sik) 悉 as:—Sik)(ch、cbi 悉知之 All know it. 

15. Yat) ts^ai) ~~ * 切 as :— Yat, ts(ai) (shai sin' ~ "切 使碟 IlMve spent 

16. Tsim^ 盡 as :— Tsun; tsut,〕 盡卒 All died. [the whole. 

17. Yat, H^ung- 一 統 All, the whole. 

18. Tai^ ,kii . 大家 as :— Tn? ,ka .chnng- P 大 家中意 All are 
pleased [with if]. (For the rest of the Collective Pronouns seo Adjectives). 

Another and other ,T'a 他, pit, 別, lir.g-^ 另 ! md P 異 . 


/r(" yatj Joi ^ts'z 他 日來此 Come another day. 
Pit, ko) tsu^ tak, 鬼! J 箇傲得 The other will do. 

Note 12. ― Tai^ ; f〈m 大 Rt means generally ; fat, ^faa 發凡 For the 

most part ; jfan 11V 凡要 The most important of the whole. 

1.3.— Shii' ,u 庶^ Almost. 

14. -- Tai^ k^oP 大極 In general, ou the average. 


Grammar of tiik CniNKSK TvANOi'Ar.K. 

Indefinite Pronouns. 

'-YavL pit, yeung'^ 1)(、>) .mo (ni 有 ^ij 像 布無呢 Have you any other 
stuff ? 、 、 

Ling= ngoP ^yau (fong Bt, 另夕卜 f】 方法 There are some otlier 


Ling^ ^yau ; ngfrn jts4n 另有 fi^ 錢 He has some money besides. 
; P yatj 異 日 Anotlipr day. 」 

Kin' ,yan ,clu sliat, ,u kin' (Id ,clu sliat, Mj 人之 $''々口 見 巳之失 

Look upon the loss of otherfr as yon do upon ; yum' own. 

Any, any one, an}' body, any body else, :ire expressed in the following- 


^N'l -yau (tsau ; md 你 宵 S IS 呢 Have you any wine ? 

; Ngo (t6 ,m5 lok, 我都 备 No, I have not any. 

, tak, =ngo ,to ^shiu .ngan ^mo 你借得 多小銀 呢 
Can you lend me any money ? * 

SjNgo ,kam csbi /m .ts^ang =yau .ng-an 我 4"B$P§ "曾' 有銀 I have not 
any at present. 

; Yau jan man^ k'ap, ^ni ,m6 (ni 有人 [11] 及 f 尔無呢 Has any body 
inquired after you ? 

jMo^ k, ,ujo yat, 1")) 無呀, 無一個 No, not any. [or Yat, ko) ,tb 

-1110.] - 

Pat, lun^ cl^o jjan fan^ 'ts'z fat, ^ngo pit, fiit^ (chi sbap^ ttii^ din 不諭何 

人 ^Cjttj 法 必罰 S 十;^ 員 Any body transgressing this law 
shall be Hijed tfu dollars. ' 

I'ing; ng'oi"yau tsoi; — (ni 另外 有人 在無呢 Is there any 
body there besides ? 

Aught, as : ― Chiu' ^ngo "i 】dn) 照 我愚見 For auj^lit I know. 

Both, 'Leung- ko' [^xf '[||j as :— JNi -leung ko) ; yan 'im peng-^ 

g^^fe 雨 iii 人 染病— Both these ireii are very sick. . 

I- 'che Jiii 'az 二者, 俱夕 1;^ Both have died. 

(ts'z (kii sinong- 母子俱 t Both motiipr find child ])prished. 

.Uino- tai; ^leung- ,yan ,kim fdn' fTit, 兄 弟兩人 S 化 《11 法 Both 
bioLiiers have transgressed the law. 

20. Pwiti Colloquial. 

^Sheung "^shau Both hands. 

'Leung- yeung' ke' 兩静旣 Both kinds; both ways. 

Tenno- ^kmi haP (san (hi ke' 兩 pji^ 新起 ^ 旣 Both houses have re- 
cently been erected. 

Grammar of tiik Chinese Languagk. 
Indef a'i te P/on o u n .s' . 

-Leung- wai' shik^ iilir -lin 雨 食奮反 f Both geutlemen have uinecl 

^Leung- ko) ,ih liaP Jing- 雨倾 ^Miv^M Both are clever. 

sNi ; ngo kok, yat, kin^ ; (尔 我各 一 ff We both have one. 

'L3ung kin' 'ho W 'cha 雨件 好歸' ^ 一 Borh pieces are very dirty. 

Certain. ; Man ^yan k、vo) cts^z 某人過 ]]' 匕 A certain person passed 

-3Iau hak, clai 某客 P 黎 A certain strang-er is here. 

^Ni ,kau ,u ^mau 你:^ / 於某乎 And you have intercourse with 
such a one ! 

Wak^ lit, 5^ 曰 A certain person, some body says. 

21. Punti Colloquial of Certain. 

^Yau p6^ (shn ? ra ^ho tuk, 有 部書卩 吾好讀 Tbero is a certain book 
■which you should not read, 

有人 係嚷講 Certain persons have 
said so. 、 

-Yan .van ;' m sun' ; shan m sun' 'kwai 有人! { 窜) 信鬼 There 
are certain men who helisTe neither in good nor evil spirits. 

-Yau -mail (kim to' 有^^ 吕 到 A certain officer hns nrnved. 

Wak, j-nn w;? 'kom yeung^ tso^ =lio 或人話 像 ft" 好 Certain men 
say, to do it in that way would do. 

Each, every, Kok, kwok, ; yau ck'i 

各國有 K Every nation has its 

own flag'. 

Kokj Jieung yat^ .yan ^^vf|5 ~ One person fi'om eacli villa^/e. 

,, pan^ ^ki sz^ ^^凝 ^ ^已事 Each manag'es 】iis owa business, 

" tsz- wan- chin^ 各自 混早 $ Each fought at random. 

'Mi'ii cvaa tak, vat, km^ (i ssLeung- 每人得 ~ "件 衣裳 Each man 
got one garment. 

-Yau cp^an 『:ti ts'at, ko), (pi -mui 。'an shap, ko' 八 s(in 有貧 人七餾 
《卑 -每人 個^^ There are seven poor men, give each ten cash. 
Cbiik, km' 逐作事 Each affair, 

-Mni ch'ii^ ^sheung tak^ ngon- 二库處 上 ^ 尋 岸 You may kmd at each 

Eitlier is expres?ed by wak, 或, yik, ^^fJ &c. 

Wak, -ni wak, -ngo ? oa clieuk, 喊我 口台着 Either you or I am 


Wuk, vvak, ^ts^z 或 或 i 匕 Ekhei' that or this. 



Indefinite Pronoum. 

Yik, (u'l yilc, ^wo iT'l^P^f Fig'ht or make peace. 

Ko) ; k'mn2: ko' ,yan (clii yat) ,t/au ^ng-o ^ye fiPH fl^ 人之一 偷我野 
One ot the two Mien (i, e. either the one or other) must have stolen my 

Every, every one, evei'y、 body, every thing- arc expressed by kok, 
各, ^nmi 每, chuk^ yat^ 逐 ""^ *, by the Collective Pronouns (cliu 諸, 
,l^ai 皆, f^W 凡 

ifcc. ; and by the repetition of the subjects spoken of. 

Kok, kwok, ^yau ; wong 名 。 國有王 Every kingdom has its [own] so- 

Kok ,- ^yan -yau ^slio 

各人 有所侬 

Every body has something to 

depend on. 

'Mui .nin s/? haP 'kom 每年爭 ,顿 Affairs are the same every year. 
CVmng) (shanp' ^,^. Eveiy living crontnre. 

件件 係一檨 

Every thing- is the same. 
Few is expressed by 'ki ko〕 幾" (固, sho' 數, (to 'sbiu 多少, and 'kwa 

寡. ' 、一 -, 立: 

我有 幾部書 I hnve a few volumes, 

(San (M sho' ,kan uk, 薪 起數鬨 屋 [They] recently erected a few 
dwelling- houses. 

jrs^ii (ki yut, Joi 则^^ H y]^ Arrived a few days ago. 

^T;i (ki Hid f) ^^in、 Struck him several times, or give bim a few blows. 
Little iB expressed by the snme characters as few, as : ― 

qvHi ,mo (ki (to sink, mat, 但無幾 多食物 He has little provision. 

Many is expressed by (to 多 ; by the Collective Pronouns cluing^ 衆, 

slili^ 庶 &c., and by the Numerals man^ 萬, pA】" &c. 


(To tse- -ni 多謝你 Many thanks to yoiu 
Lok^ ^ho (to 落 好多雨 It rains much. 
Pat) (to cHin 


Not many years. 

Lii^ ts'z' 屬次 ; ,to ts(z) 多么 Many times, many a time. 

^Hii (to E f 多 Very many. . 

'R'ii ; yau =lio (to (foug fat, t 巨有好 多方法 TTe has many mean?. 

^Ng-o ctang' ; vrm =lio (to 'kvvo sbat, 我等 ^Jif 多菜' 實 We have a 
jj veat deal ol" ii-uit. 

Most, as an ladelinltG Pronoun, is expressed hy clif 至 5 and l>y other 


Grammar of the Chinese Language. 

Indefinite Pronouns, 

characters expressing- the Superlative Degree being' prefi^ced to (to and 
other Pronouns, as : ― 

Clii\to Most. ChP (to :-m\a 至 多苦雜 Most suffer i a o-s. 

Neither is expressed by a double negative, or by a Collective Pronoun 
preaediug" the final neg'ative, as : ― 

Pat) sbin^ pat) ok, ^ 善 Neither good nor bad. 
(Kain ^ngan ^ngo ^kai cmo ^^銀 我 無 I have neither p^old nor silver. 
(I shik, 'YXx ,to ,m6 衣 食 佢鄭 無 He has neither food nor raiment. 
No is expressed by a larg-e number of negatives, as : ― 


Pat, tak);i 不得已 No 

sM6 誰、 ho 無奈何 do. 

? M ^seung (kon 唔相千 No matter. 

佢無老 She has no husband. 

gMo jan 無人 No body. 

(Td ^mh cyan 都無人 Not nnv body. 

另 外無人 No hodv else. 

s,M kin' tak, yat, ko) ; yan one ; I can't see 

any one. 

Ling2 ngoP ,to m Hn) yat, k。) ,yan 另夕 [^都 1^ 吾見一 個人 I see 
no one else. 

None, not any. Tsok, yat, ^ng-o -yau ^ngan^ fkam yat, 'ngo ,to ,mh 

我有 SB 今 我奢 P 無 Yesterday I had money, to-day Ihave 

Yat, ko) 'yau hii) 一 (固未 有-去 Not onp loft. 

Tsimg ,mh • 患無, (k"i cTTio 皆無, (t(、 ,mo 都無 and other Collective 

Prononns followed by the nei^ative particles jnh 無, pat, ; yau 不有 
&c. express none, none at all, not any. 
Kotliiiig, not any thing'. 

但唔言 傲工夫 He has done nothing". 

^KMi .ts'ang- -yau ^liang ts(o) 唔曾 有行錯 He has not done 
any thing wrong. 

^K'ii <td ; mb tsW 】cwo) f 巨都 He has not done any thing wroug 
at all. 

One, as an Indefinite Pronoun, is often implied as : ― 

?、 J tiV (tim yming^ 'tu sud' 【i 萏^ 到!! /| 漾打奠 One does not 
know what to do. 



Indefinite Pronouns. 

Yat. ko^ haP (h?), yat, ko) liuP ^ho 一個 f 系好— 個卩 &係好 The 
one is g'ood, the other not. 

One anotlier, as: ― ^K'^ii ^seunp^ oi) f 巨相' 愛 They love one another. 

One and all, as :— Yat, k^oi) hai^ ok, 一 概係惡 They are bad one 
and all. 

Yat) ping^ ^fan Joi ~ ^哲手 來 One and all have returned. Other (see 

Some (see Others.) • 

cNi (shii ,chung' ^yau 'la ko) 4io ke\ ^yau ^ki ko) ^ho ke^ 


中有 幾個好 统有幾 個唔好 Piit Of these books some are good, 
the otljei's are bad. 

People. ,Yan /un 、Ld (kong 人 歡喜講 People like to talk. 

Several. -K'ii ^yau sbo' 'tsing- He has several wells. 

-rail (Id Jean ; wong (kung tsoP (pi % 逢問皇 宫在彼 There, are 
several Imperial palaces there. 

-cK'n jing- jsbing- <f;'m f 巨. 應承 幾错 He promised saveral times. 

Home body, some one. -Yau cyan kiu〕 "ni jloi 有人 叫你來 Some body 
has called you. 

是必 要有一 

個人打 火蘭呢 6j 也玻 璃縛 Some one must have broken this tumbler. 
^Yau sz; r'm cteuk, 有 事唔着 There is something- wrong-. 
Such. cU^ts^z'tangok, jvan 女 rSil' 匕等 人 Such bad men as these. 
King-' wai) sli6ung々 tui' "^che put, p'^a' ^mo (kwai 

敬 畏上帝 者不怕 

魔鬼 Such as fear God do not fear tlie devil. 

-^iNgo M kP tak, kom^ 4! 6 ke' (t(in 我言 Hf^pfl' 好 口统天 I never re- 
member such a fine day as this. 

(Sin "(au ke' 先扉 The former. 

(Shau ; mi ke' 收 尾 " 旣 The latter. 

14. Numerals. 
The three ways of writing- the Numerals are called : ― 
(",) (Un C}u'm til" sho' muk, tsz' 原 本 ff^ 審女 目 字 { ''ractei's 『 ^ 
化) TuP =se tik, sho', tsz^ 大寫的 數目字 { =S^f 。f 

(c,) til. siKV ― tsz' t^i^msf^rtu. 

or ,Su (chau :m;'i sIkV mnk, taz.' ••Af/TI^'l^i 子!^ rent accounts' 


Grammar of the Chinese Language. 

Ind (; finite Pronouns. 

They are represented in the following lines •• ― 
1. Cardinal JSwnbers. 















The first mode of writing is the oue generally followed 
second in important documents and accounts, in order to 
fraud ; and the third in current accounts. 

十 ~" ' Shap^ 3^at^ 

+ 三 " p 

十 ■zn " (s"m 

十四 ,, sz' 






in books ; the 
g'Udrd agaiust 








二 十- 


» Ink, 
,, ts'^at^ 
" pAt, 
,, ^kau 

P shap, 

P shap^ yat^ 

fSum shap^ 

Sz〕 shapj 

Lulc, shap^ 
Ts^at., shapj 

Note 15. ― '^Leunj^ 雨 is generally used for two ia Colloquial^ as: ― 
^Leung ku〕 jan 雨個人 Two men. 


C! HA^IMAll OF TlIK ClIINKSE Lan (、- 1,. 、(; 

JS'unievaJa. Cardinal Nionhers. 


一 B* 



一 白一 萬 

Yat, pjik, 

Yut, (ts^'m 
(Sum (ts('m 
Yat) m^n- 
^Ng- iniW 

Slia])j m(m* or yat) yik,. 
Yat, p^k) m-'in^ or yat, cliiiV (16) 
千八百 六十三 Yat, fts'in put, pale, luk, shap, (sam. 
In counting' I'rom a hundred and upwards to 110, the cliaracter Jiug 
("and") is put before the additional number, as:— 101 "百審 ' Yat, 
:ling yat,; lOo 一 百零五 Yat, pak, Jing 'ng. 百一 Vhk, yat, 
"leans 110; 百五 P;lk) 'ng- 150 &c. 

The eiullcss kalpas of the Budhists and Tnuists arc frequently expressed 
})_y (t'ai 梯, jOung 壤, (kau 溝, (kin [Sj, ,cLing" 正, and tsoi) 載 . 
2. A fovv examples of the various applications of the 

' Kumeral Yat 、- 

Y;U) yat, ~ ' ~" ' One by one. 

Yat, jSam yat^ ? ~ ~ Of one mind and one purpose. 

cMo yat, pat, ^chi 無 ~ Omniscient, or there is not one thing 
which he does not know. 

■K'u ke' (sam pat, yat, tt?*^jCl、7 ~^ ' They disag-rec. :「 
(Fi yat, tsW 非一錯 Not merely one mistake. ' 
Yat)mhi; —面 Whilst. 

Yat, min; ch,ut, jmun yat, ini'n- (fan fi? ; k'ii ke' -mai p^n- —* 面 出 鬥 
一面吩 咐但嘅 買辦 Whilst leaving" the house, lie at the same 
time gave orders to his steward. 
Yat, (king — 經 As soon as. 

Yat, punYhi, yat^ pun^ p'tV ~ "半喜 ~ * 牟 He partly rejoiced and 
Yat) ^shang — The whole life. [partly feared. 

Yat, Vong — As soon as he had left. 

Note 16. ― Tlio most common way of expressing; one Million is Yat, 
]>ak, m;'m; 一— fi7 為 ; 10 mill. Xut, muu^ ^千 1 萬 or Yat, ^kiiig 



Numerals. Cardinal Numbers. 

(Cliiin yat, 尋 " Addicted to, devoted to. 
Yat) 'shcung' yut, *ba ~ "上 ~ "下 Up and down. 
Y:it, ,tin yat, (t(、 "顚 ―" "倒 Topsy turvy. 
'Pai yat, -ha 蹄 ~^ "P 下 Take a glance at it. 

3. ! P . ■ ■« 2. 

-K'ii patj -yau 'i^ ,sam f 巨^^ 有 He is not double minded. 
4v'ii -leung jui ^shoung ,sluin 'tiny 巨雨 罔上 山】 -貢 He ascended 
^Leung (ts(an 兩^^ The parents. [the peak twice. 

'Leung tai^ 兩大 The two great ones, i.e. Heaven and Earth. 

Plaintiff and defendant. 
-Leung ^mi 雨^^ The two beauties, i.e. genius in man and beuaty 
^Leung ^leung chung' 雨 i^^^ Two taels. [in woman- 

4. Sciin 三 2. 

The Numeral Three is often used in counection with certain objects hav- 
ing regard either to popular belief, relations of life, certain offices of 
government, or ironically^ as a slang. 

,Sam 'p5 三寶 The three Bndhas. 

<Sim 《ts(oi 二^^ The three powers (heaven, earth and man). 
(S^m tsukj — The three kindreds (father^ mother an<I wife). 

(Sam (kong* — The three relations or ties (prince aud minister, 
father and son, husband and wife). 

(S:'im ^pan im^tt Three classes of attendants in public courts, as •• 一 
sMiin (pan 門班 Attendants on the magistrate ; 
Tso^ (p!'in g 班 Lictors or torturers ; 
Official messengers. 
,Sam k'apj tap 三及第 The three big-hest Hanlin. 
Siixn sz 三司 The three Commissioners in a province, viz. 

the Treasurer, the Judge, and the Superintendent of Salt. 

S"m chek ^ghau 三隻手 A thief (a person with three luuids). 
,Sam ,k ly 三 Y 路 A cross way. 

4. Sz' 13 4. 
This Numeral frequently expresses all ai'uun'.l, ax cry where. 


Grammar of th k Oiu^esk LANouAor:. 

Num erals. Cardival Nn m hevs. 


All about. 
Every xvhcro. 
The four points. 
On every side. 
All die ])arba]'inns. 
The m)i'ld, also Cliiiia. 
The four points of tbe compass. 
The four seasons. 

The four members or extremities of the body. 

Tlie four precious iliiiif^s (pnper, ink, inksiand nnd 
hi pin '16 

四眼借 A person wearing* spectaclos. [pencil). 

四路無 Pi 

No resource, whichever way I turn. 

rift ^^~r* 

四 fl 下 

,, cli'ii) 



,, mhi^ 





,' lii'im^-' 

m 向 


,, kwa? 

,, (cM 



,, (p5 

-1 I_ 

lie knows a little. 

41 iu talc, sz' sz' luk, Ink, 哓 得四四 
fez' ,fong- muk, 四方木 A W')cl、lie:irl, a dolt. 

^Ni kom' sz' 'hoi cLc' 你 PU' 四海睹 What u courteous man you are ! 

6. ;丄、 - g 五 5. • 

This Numeral is applied to n cortnin class of" ohjeots, Hie limited number 
of whicli (nccording to their knowledge) nppeavs to liuve been five, hence 
it frpqiiontly sig-uities all. 


五' 企 




.slioim?; 五常 * 

t 瞧 JlJS 
iig'o!、、 五-资 

fnlv, 五福 
tspuk, JfJ^ 

JOUO- 五方 

The five planets. 

,, " sorts of prain. 

" ,, relations in life. 

" " precepts. 

" " elements. 

" " colours. ' 

" ,, tastes (or spices). 

,, ,, virtues. 

" " visceni. 

" " hifi'liest moiintnins in China, 

,, ,, Wfwings. 

" " ordors of nobility, 

" fmi】, ]u)iiils of tlic c(,ujpi""r and Ihc CQvAro. 


Grammar of the Chinhse Languagk. 

Nwuerals. Cardinal Nvmhrrs. 

7. Luk, 六 6. 

The four quarters of the earth with the zenith and 
The six snpieme tribunals at Peking-. ["adir. 
The six departments of adiuvnistration in a ])roviace 
in i Ml i tat ion of the six boards. 
Lnk, kikj 六極 The six calamities which hii])pon to men. 
,, kukj 六穀 The six kinds of gniin on wliicli man snhfiists. 


n 一 I 广 

,, ch(uk 乂、. 访 The six kinds of animals on which mon live. 

8. They have besides the ts'at^ chiiig' 七政 The seven rog-irlators, viz 
Sun, moon, and five planets. * 
Ts'at, cts'ing- 七 Seven passions. 

p.'it^ fong" /\r)j Eight principal and subovdinato. points of the com- 

Piit;mt, A 法 

Hit) jhang 八行 
rives at Peking. 

'Kau jing 九刑 

,, ^t'slin 九泉 

" k,i") 丸 H 

(pan 九品 

The eight laws of tlie criminal code. 

The eight roads by wliicli tho tributary grain ar~ 

The nine punishments. 

The nine fountains above b.ados. 

The nine passages of the body. 

The nine grades of oiKoial rank, 

Sliap, and ehap^ fan〕 ~f"* and "f"^^ are equivalent to perfecfc. 

Shap, fan) 4i6 +分 # Peifectly good. 

Shap, fon〕 5'm cheuk, 十分 P§; 着 Very wrong. 

Simp; fan' (di'mg tsan^ 十^ 稱讚 Ex t rem el v thankful. 

(Sani fChmig shapa fan) m'lu; it, J& 中十分 m 熱 lie was nnicli dis- 
tuvljed in mind. 

Hundred, ihousaud, ten thousand are used in a similtu' immifr; \m\. wliilo 
sLap, expresses perfection of quality, handled Scq. coii 屮 ris<, cliiefly u 

complete (collective) nuiubev of quality, quantit}-, ns : ― Pnk-, siiij^,'^ |^ 

姓 All the Chinese tribes, 

Puk, muk, 百木 All tlie trees. 

rak, fat, pfik, Chung-' 百 發百中 Successful in every enterprise. 
Pi'ik, (ts'in m;in- 百千萬 An immense uinnber. 
Miin' kwok, 尊 國 All nations. 

Your Majesty. 



Numerals. Ordinnl NmnhirH. 

M;in^ (i'rm'!^ 萬方 All parts of t,he woi-ld. 
? >I;ia' sliiii' 萬 tit For all ag'os. 
Yik, chiiV 億 All the people. 

9. Ordinal Aimbcrs. 

'Hie Ordinal Numbers are expressed by the pivflx tai^ bfifurc the Canlinal 

Js ilIlillClS, ; IS : — 

TaP yat, |? 一 The first. 

" " 身》 Tlio second. " 

" shap, |jj 十 The tenth. 

" yat, pale, —— 百 The liuiidr.'dtli. 

'n;p pn'flx t;ii^ is, however, in ';, -eiieral omitted and implied in the {'ollow- 
iiiy bemuJiCfS^ as : ― 

' RYun (<"im<>- sbai^j cnin 咸豐 十年 The tentli year [of tlie reign] of 

Sz' lit, 四 月 The fourth month. [Ilam-fmig. 

正 月初十 Tho tenth (lay of t]ie first mouth. 

'Kun -ng' ^^liL Tho fifth volume (of a set of books.) 

In speaking oi" rulers, the prefix tai; must be expressed as : ― "Lii tai- 

simp, sz) ko) 呂 —第十 個 Louis the 14th. 

The first, the last &o., are expressed by the classifier Ko^ or hy the suffix 
kt''), as ; ― 

P. a— Sia to' ko^ 先雜 ft The ni st who arrived, or, the one who ar- 
rived first. 

(Shau ^ni'i to' ke' 收 尾到概 Tlie last who arrived, or, t)ie one who 
arrived last. 

cSliau hni ko) jan di,U〕 ; IKi yat, ko〕 敢尾 (固 人 除了一 jgi TLe last 
hnt (mo. (17) 

First and second quality of goods : ― Sli6ung"nj;ii 上米 First quiilitv of 
lice ; (Cliung 'mai 中] second do. The second best jk'i tsV .}L^^l. 
JJ. L.—'lVz pat, a' (ii (pi 化 匕不亞 5$ 彼 This is not inferior to that. 
10. The Quotation Nunihers are expressed in the same way as the Or- 
tlinal Nnrabers, e. g, Tni- vat., 'k'ii in a, ^k'ii ; taP (sz 'k'ii — ' 

First lie used vile langniag'O, and secondly 

etc. killed him. 

! Note 17. ― The CliinJiiDnn wonlcl express tlio latter sentence in tlio fol- 

It)\vin;[i; ip.annor : — Tul\^ bui- •yrit.) I《o) ttV (sin k、vo)'- k,U d^^jf^ 9c$ 

、、'•: • 

ll± Only one person urnvc^d be {'ore him. 


Gkammar of tiik Chinese Languagk, 

Numerals, MnUipUcation Numbers. 

The Numftralia Tterativa are expressed by the clmractei's ts,z》 IE] ? 
,ian 翻, fts^> 遭, and in Piinti Coll : by ,pin 邊 &c. 


'KMi (pd (ni tuk, yat, tsV IE 獎呢 :地獨 一 ^ He boiled this only 

Tie wpnt twice. 

^Ngo jwfr ,sluno- ; kii (ki ,fan 我應成 f 巨幾翻 1 promised him sc" 
veral times, 

、%o Jhn f,V ,pin 我盼付 但幾邊 I ordered him several ti mos. 

Soveral times. 

41o ,to ,iu 好多囘 Many times. Li? tsV 疆次 Frequently. -Lui 
ts'z' ^:^, do. jLin ts'z' ^ Mniiy times in succession. Sit, s'lt, 
屑屑 constantly; tsoi) ,s:iin ^zzi ; jCh'ung- jciriing- tip; tip, 重重叠 
all express many a time, otten. 

11. The Multiplication Numbers are expressed in the following' way. 
/Hm 單, Single, as :— /fan ^sMm 單衫 Only one dress. 

Talcj yat) ko) ^yun 《蜀 ~ 人 Only one sing'le individual. 

Tuk, vat, chek, ^<Imu 獨 ~ ^隻手 A sing-le hand. 

^Tan ^slmn 'tsai 單身仔 None but myself. 

cCh'^ung' and-^slicuno' express double, as : ― 

" K'u cheuk/gcirnng fulc, f^^^^.^^ He wears double £^*armenfs, 

fMa ^ts'eung Jjp^ A double barii^led g-un. ' 

A <ioiil)]e edg'ed sword. 
(Sam jCli'uTig' fChi tsak^ laic, 三 重之则 

?、 Thivn (l<>iil)]o(I niiike six. 
jCh'uno- iiak, jif tf- 重刻 ijlS 地 Enyrave this over ag'ain. 
T'ui i§ Double, fold, as :一 

'Pf ;k,U q<kmg' ;p,tH k6m) (to 俾 { 巨雨 fgfiy' 多 Give him doul)!e the 

fKu sz' 'p'fii 加 pi 信 Make it four times the fjimntity. 
Shap, -p'ui 十食 Ten fold. 

12. Fractions, ,ling- sliu' 零數 are expressed in tho followiiio- way: ― 
Yat, pi'm' '^1^ J;-. 

,Sam fan) y at) 三分 ~ ' TT nlso^Sfim (cW jnt, Z^^/J"^ ~~ ' 

8z' fan' ^chi yat, P>i 分之 ~~ - } nlso fan) yat, 
'N- fan) sz) i 分四 


Grammar of the Chinese Lanciuage. 

Numerals. Mcamres of Capacity. Measures of Lciu/th. 

P;U) fan) «ng- 八分五 ― filso Pnt. f:m ,chi ; A 分之 五' 

(Pi ^ng-an (s;'tm ^iiii pun' 俾銀三 員半 Give three dollars & one half. 

Yat) jTiIn pun' ~ "年半 One year aud-u-liulf. 

Pun' ye= 牟夜 TTulf the ni-ht, 

Tui^ pun' ^^^ji The f^rtnitor part, the majority. 

Puti' sun"' pun' ji Ilalf believing, half doubting. 

B. Respecting' the Collective Mumerals, as : paii', brace, &c. see Clas- 

13. Measures of Capacity. 
Yat, nap, suk, ; wai yat, suk, ~~ "伞 立粟爲 ~ "粟 1 grain of maize is a siik" 
Lukj suk, jwai yat, (kwai 5^ 粟^^ "圭 <3 suk. make one (kwai. 
Shap^ ckwai ^wai yat, ts'iit, 十圭爲 ~ 10, kwai make one ts'iit. 
SLap; ts'iit, ^wai yat, ,ch'au 十!? 爲 ~ * 抄 10 ts'iit, make one ,ch'au. 
Shaps (ch'au jwai yat, cheuk^ 十抄爲 ~~ *^ 10 ^chYiu make one cheuk,. 
'Ng- chenkj jvvai yat, yenk, 五 勺 爲 ~ "愈 5 cheuk, make one yeukj. 
^Leung- yeuk, jwaf yat, kb^, 雨 爲 ~ "合 2 yeuk, make one kop^. 
Shap, k(、)p) swai yat, ,sliiug 十合爲 ~ "升 10 k6p, make one (sliing. 
Shap, (sliing jwai yat, (tau 十升爲 "-^ "沖 10 shing- make one hok, 
'Ng- 'tail jWai yat, Luk, 五斗爲 ~ "辦 5 <tau make one huk, 

^Leung- link, jWai yar) shek, 

雨斛 爲一石 2 hukj make oue sbek, 

(l',ii teik, luk, (tau sz) (shhig 备則六 4^ 四升 1 is equal to 6 《tau 4 

^ tsakj sbap,luk/tau 则十 斗 1 is equal to 10^ tun. ['shing'. 

秉則 十六斛 1 ping is equal to l(i liuk„ 
Of the preceding measures the kop, the half (sl】inj^,, the whole (shing and 
tile (tau are the only ones in actual use amonj^ the Chinese. 

IJr. Measures of Lcnglh. 
Yatj nap, ^wai yat) fan' — "3|^立 爲 ~ '分 1 grain is one fan). 
Shap^ fan) ^wai yat, ts,iin, — 分^^ -"" "寸 10 fau) make one inch. 
Sliaj), ts,Un) gwai yat, ch,ek〕 十寸爲 ~ }^ 10 inches make one foot. 

:Shap, cli'ek, ^wai vat^chenng'"!^^^^ — 10 feet make one clit'uug* 


十丈 爲一引 

10 clit'ung- make 1 'yan. 
1.5. Geor/raphical Divisions. 
Pun' t/iin' .wai, Xi 牟寸爲 jM IlaU' iucli is one ,11 
^Ng ts'iin" rWiii yat, i'iiu' 玉 ^ ' ~ '分 I'lVt incLcb make uno fun.' 

Grammar of the Chinese Language. 

Numerals. Land Measures. Weights. 

五尺 s —步 Five ch'ekj make one pcV. 

,S^im pak, Ink, simp, yxV 。vai yat, ; li 二 巨六 十步爲 ~ "觅 Three 
liundrod and sixty po' make one ; li (mile). 

V puk, 'np- shap^/li ,wai yat, to' 二 百五十 里@ 一度 Two hun- 
dred and fifty Hi inuke one to^ 

10. Land Measures.- 

五尺 爲一步 5 cli'ekj make 1 

V shap, sz' p6^ cAvai yat, fan' 二十 四步 爲一分 24 po^ make 1 fun'. 
Lnkj simp, p6- ;wai yat, kok, 乂、 十步 爲一角 GO p6^ make 1 kol(). 
Sz) kok) ,wai yat, hnm 四角爲 ~ 4 kok〕 make 1 'man. 
Vdk, hnan ,wai yat, (k,ing 百 SJl 爲 ~ "頃 100 -man make 1 

At present, from the -mau downwards^ the denominations are mu) 


,li 厘, ,li6 毫, (sz 紘 and fat) 您. 

17. Weights. 

Yat, nap, 'sliii ^wai yat, 'shii ~" '^Ji^^ ~ One kernel of o-min is 

Shapi 'sliii ; wai yat, -lui 十添爲 "纖 10 'slifi make 1 4 in'. [I 'sliii. 

Shapj 'lui jWai yat^ (chii 十欒 爲一銖 10 -lui make one ,cliii. 

simp; sz) (chii ;wai yaVl^ung' 二四十 錄爲 "~ 24 (chii mfiko 
one 'leung. (18). 

Sliapj lukj 4eung cwai yat, Jkan 十六 t "^爲 一"^ "斤 10 'Icung- make 1 

b (kan swai yat, -yan '斤爲 2 ,knu make 1 -yan, [(lean. 

^Sara shapi (kan ^wai yat, (kwan 二十 斤; @ ~" 30 ,kan make ono 

[ jkwan. 

Yat, pak, (kan jwai yat) tarn' 一 I 冱 爲一擔 

100 (kan mnke 1 tarn). 

Piik, X- shap, (kan ^wai yat, sliek, 曰 - 十斤爲 "石 120 Jian make 
At present the current weig-hts are : — [one shek,. 

ff* 雨錢 分厘亳 縣 忽 

Kail (lining Js'in Fan' ,Li Jib (Sz Fat, 
1 1(5 100 1,G(I0 1(5,000 1()0,000 1,000,000 10,000,000 
1 10 100 1,000 10,000 100,000 1,000,000 
1 10 100 1,000 10,000 . 100,000 
1 10 100 1,000 ' ] 0,000 
1 10 100 1,000 
1 10 秦 
1 10 

NoTH 18.— Lemif^' 雨 is translatuel Tael ; Jvan 斤 Catty; Turn' 锖 
I'icul ; Slick i 石 



Nicmcrals. Measures of Time. 

, 18. 3fmsures of Time. 

In chrunolo*^}^ ^\\\ the desig'nation of time the Ohinoso innke use of two 
classes of chanictors called tlio stems and branches. Of tlie former tlim; 
are ten, arid of the latter 12 characters. In forming* the cycle ol (; (> 
years, the atoms are placed at the left, aud the brandies at the ri^ht side. 

The ,Fi(- Kdp, ' Tsz or Cycle of Stxfy Yrars, 

If the student be anxious to acquaint himself with Chinese clironolof^y, 
lie should commit the stems and brunches to memory, as it will save liim 
miioh time in ascertnmins; the year past and tliat to come, >. 
19. "The Chinese year, which is luui-solar, consists of 12 months, excopt 
when, by this mode of reckoning;, the lunar time falls bebind the solar 
time one \v]iole veVvolutioii oF the moon, then an interoalavy month is 
added by the follov/in^* rule : —— If during any lunar month the sun does 
not enter any si*;'ii of tlie zo'Uac, that month is inter (; alary, and the ye:ir 
con>;equeatly contains thirteen months. The intercalary year contains 
:iS 1: days and tlie common year 354 days. The 1st, 8vd, 她, 3tli aud 
12th months have 29 days. A month of 30 days is called tai^ iit^, that 
of 29 days ^siu iitj, the greater and the lesser months." 

The months are divided into decades, called shcunj^^ ^ts'un 上甸, 

fChung sts'iin 中 旬 and h;? ; ts'iiu 下旬, tlie first, the middle aud tho 

third decades. ,Ts'iin noi; 旬 內 means within ten (lays; ; ts'iin ngoi- 

甸夕卜 more than ten days ; ,Sum jts'tia 三旬 one month. 

; Nin M ts'at, ,ts'iin 年 已七句 Alreadly 70 years of ag-e. 

Only tho first month has a name and is called (ching iit, 正月, the rest 

are numbered 2nd 'drd itc. 

^Ch'o yat, ^<JJ B The first day of the month ; - 
"Ch,() P 初二 The second day of the month; 
CUi'o (Si'iin 初三 The Uiial day of tlio moutli, etc. 


IS (; 5 

l,s (; 7 



&乙 丙丁戊 1I,M 辛壬癸 

-99999999 9 9 

& 乙丙丁 戊已庚 辛壬癸 

4 5 6 7 8 12 0,^ 

甲乙丙 丁戊己 庚辛壬 癸 


8888889 9 99 

甲 乙丙丁 戊己庚 辛乇努 

乙丙丁 戊己」 欲辛 壬努: 

戌亥 子丑寅 巳午未 

-甲 乙丙丁 戊己庚 辛壬癸 


Grammar of the CniNESt4 Language. 

Numerals: Measures of Time. 


6. Lap J jCh'an 

20. 'ti 'shui 


5. fKing chat; 

20. .Ch'un (fan 


5. (Ts'ing gluing 

20. KuVii 


n. Lap, ha- 


E !、 


6, jMong cliung' 



23, TaP (shii 


7. Lapj (ts'au 

23. Ch'ii' ^shli 


8. Pak, 16^ 

23. fTs,au ,fan 


8. ; Hon 15^ 

23. fScung' kong 


7. Lap, (tung 

22. ^Siu silt, 


7. Tap sut, 

22. (Tung' chP 


6. ^Siu ; Hon 

21. T:'iP ; hon 

There are seven iit, 関月 (Tntercalaiy months) within 19 years. (18). 
20. The Chinese year commences on the new moon nearest to the loth 
degree of Aquarius, and is corrected according to the solar year, by the 

use of twenty four tarms 01' half months, called tsit, ling; 節令, each of 
which expresses the period of the sun's passage tlu'ougli the half of a Zo- 
diacal sig-n (see the annexed table). 

15 e in Aquarius. 
In pisces. 

In Aries. 

In Taurus. 

In Gemini. 

雨水 1 



大暑 } 

立秋 t 


In Cancer. 

In Leo. 

In virgo. 

In Libra. 

霜降 I 

In Scorpio. 

JUL 冬 j 


enters Aquarius. 

In Sagitharius. 

In Capricomus. 

21. The Chinese divide the day (our 24 hours) into twelve periods, which 
are again subdivided into TIak, and in modern times, by the introduc- 
tion of the watch, into minutes and seconds. 

Note 18. ― In former times it was the custom of the emperor to an- 
nounce the intersalary month, on wbicli occiisiori lie used to stay williin 
the gate ; Leuce tkc character king' within llie gate. 


Grammmi of tiik Ctiinkre Lanoitaotc. 

Numerals. Measures of lime. 




Ch. Time. 

時 s 



刻 01 刮 

Ilfik, kwiitj 



SaP ,ini 


The twelve periods derive their designation from the 12 branches 
rary cliaracters, and begin at 11 p.m. 


jshi 子時 from 11 P M. to 1 A.M. 


" 5r ', >■ 

1 QAM 


,, 寅 " , 

, 3—5 tlo. 

; M ui 

,, 夕 p,, , 

, 5—7 do. 


,, m " , 

, 7—9 do. 


,, 巳,, , 

, 9—11 do. 

,, 午,, , 

, 11 A.M.— 1 P.M. 


,, 未 ,, , 

, 1—3 P.M. 


"申" , 

, 3—5 do. 


', 酉,, ' 

,, 5—7 do. 


,, 戌,, , 

7—9 do. 


"亥" ' 

9—11 do. 

Sheung^ -ng 上午 



; ng 正 ,, 

Twelve o'clock. ' 

'ng 下 " 


29. The Watches. 

初更 The first watch, from 7—9 P.M. 
二 " "■ second w fitch, from 9 一 11 do. 
三 „ ,, third watch, from 11 P.M. to 1 A.M. 
四 ,, „ fourth watch, from 1—3 A.M. 
-ft ,. ,, fifth watch, from 3 ― 5 do. 

Kau (tsz 

means the commencemeut of that time, i e. 11 P.M. 

^Wan kwat, 媪刮 denotes one qnnrtnr of an honr. 

in; tsoi^ slyvp, 1^ (Hm (chuiig 現在 十二萍 遠 It is now 12 o'clock. 

Hai2 nemio- (tim pun' (diuiig' 係雨, 「:1 半遠 It is now half past t、70. 

^ t 2 1 



The Vfrh. AuxUiarh'f^. 

H:d"kau ctim ;ling yat) kwat) Y 系九 鐘零— "舌! J It is a qunvtor 
i):»st nine, 

15. The Verb. 

To exhibit the Verb in all its bearin'i^'s, is a task of considerable clifficulf y. 
The Chinese call it ut, tsz- 活字 the movable character, indicsitivn ol. 
the various changes it undergoes. 

1. Aicriliaries. 

Tak, 得 To be able, can, may &c. 

It expresses a physical as well as a moral possibility. 

1. Physical possil)ility. 

, (M talc, (shan ;, m 'hi tak, ,ni 你起 得身 Pg 起得呢 Are you uhh 
to get up '? 

'Hi tnlc, lok, 起1"导^^$ Yes ! I am able to get up, i. e. T liavo tlio 】>h.v- 

a i?.-.Loi pat, tak, 來不得 ■) „ ' [sical smHi^th'. 

― rti; yt4 )■ tie cannot come. 

P. D,—M ; loi talc, 哈來得 j 

C. 一 Tsok) pat) tak) 作不 fif , , ^ . , , , nr. pk- ml^ Tt c.nnnot be 
P.— Ts6;i tak, 做唔得 and ' - (al:, 唔拔, 浩 { done.^ 

; m Slicung tak) (sli:'m 'ting ;, m ^slieung- tak, (ni 你 上 得 山頊 上 
得呢 Can you (are you able) to ascend tlio peak ? 

C:m you repeat this ? 

(1. ― Shiit^ pat, tak, 說不得 

It cannot he snid, i, e, Tt is uso]r>ss 
to say more. 

_p.— (Kong'Jm "(19) 講 卩吾得 
P.— AVa^ ,, tSP§# 

Mok, 'yan tak, shut, 莫 有得說 It is not in my power to sfiy. 
C— Jiang pat, tak, fai^ 行 不得快 ) 

C— Jiang- tak, pat, i'ki' 行 得不快 \ Cannot go quickly. 
P.— ;M ;>mng' tak, f\U) 唔行得 j^fe ) 

In almost all neg'at.ive plirnses formed with trilc, tlip npj:;*at.ivp mnv oitlior 
precede or follow the Auxiliary. In Pnnti Collor|ui:i1, liowovcr, tlie ne- 
gative ouglit to be placed beforo the Verl>, and the A.uxiliary before the 

K ,.-JM ^se tak, fiffi Cannot, wvite .niclcly. 

C— ^Se tak, pat, fai> ^#^t^i 

P.— c,M — g tak, Pgn#i| 1 cnnnot go Ihr. 

C. ― Jiang pat) tak^ H\n 竹 不化: J 

Note 19. ― ^Kong* ^'m ch'ut",) n^l^u ji! nieans. I cininut proiidunce it. 


The Verb. Avxiliarics. 

P.-/M ,t'img tak, 唔逋得 1 , ^ , 

> -r,' ; H r '-'iiiinot understand. 
C. ― ,tung- pat, tak, m^^W j 

The object follows the Anxiliaiy and takes the place of the Adverb, o. g 
P.— c'M teng^ tak, ,kwai 'kii f]§A£*#S.^P.| No certain nile cau be- 
C— Teng^ pat, tak, kwai ^kii 定不 ^丄乂^ 山 
Tiik, nlso expresses intensity as : ― 

IS-o^ tak, ,chun sW^4io 餓得 眞是可 lie is so intensely 
hungry, tliuL he is indeed to be pitied. 

2. Varioiu transpositions of Tcih、. 

C. talc, Hm^ ; n (fo 惹得 滿!] 錄 1^ 火 He was so intensely ir- 
ritated, that liis countenance was as red as firo. 

H':ik) tak, ^au put, t,oi; (sh:m 嚇得魂 不在身 He was so Iriglitcn- 
ns almost to faint ; lit. Can frij^hten one to death. 

,Nau tak, t6' (ts'z 難得到 iH^ It, is difficult to get here. 

C. ^Sz pat, tak, iit, pat, tak, ^E^ffrS* T'^f^. P. OP'sz ; m (sz tnk, 

oi' .Shan- ,slmng' tak, 舜 死唔死 得愛生 唔生脊 Though 
Wishing for death, be cannot die ; and though wishing to live he cannot 
live (can neither live nor die). 

2. Tak 得 expres^^es n moral possihility. 

Shut, pat, tak) wa^ pat^ tak, yf^ f^f^^f^ Wc may not even whis- 
])er in his presence. 

(N': c^m ch'nt, tak ^raun 《尔 P 吾出 ^ 寻門 You must not go out, i. e. yon 
nre not permitted to do so. 

'Ni (d"m ^no-o (yam ,ni ko) ,pui ,ni 你? 隹我 欽 個你呢 Would you 
allow me to drink this cup ? 

飲得 You may. HiP tak, lok, 去 各 you may 


^Sr tak, ,iu jam 寫 得囘音 You may send a reply. 
S. Tak, 3 辱 in connection with ^siug 摘、 and ^min 

C, D. Xa 'yu 'min talc, shau^ hV ; 'n.^^o 'yd ^sing- tak, ,lo ^snm 他也兔 
竭: 受氣, 我也省 得勞》 6、 He mip'ht avoid vexation and T trouhle. 

、Sin); tukj liau- Joi 4i)ai i'ln' "^、 得後^ You will avoid subse- 
quent- hutied. 

fl)" pat, tnkj 巴不得 Would that &c. 

IT"】? pat) takj 恨不 《导 Would that &(、,, nlso : ITow I wish d^n. 

cm tnk, yat, ko^ cch'im- 巴 得 一 个々 登 Would tliut I conlil g-et 
one onirige. 


Grammar of the Chtmkse Language. 

The Verb. AtixUiuries. 

7 曰 

Takj (20) -f^ Expresses the optative, as : ― 

Ilan^ pat, tak) (k6 kW Hi'ii 恨不得 高過但 Would that I were 

[taller than he. 

(P:'i pat, tak, ; k(ii Joi 巴不 得但末 Would that he wo-.ikl come. 
There are a i'ew instances in the Cuurt Colloquial where tik, is inter- 
cbang-ed with tak, e.g. 

Hok, tik) yat, ko) ftit, ; i 學&令 ~ "個 法兒 I have learnt one method. 

'Ho 卩 J* May, must &c. 

Pat, 'ho 不 Pf You may (must) not, 

'Yan ; ho pat, (l】o 有 何木可 Why should I not ? 

Pat, Clio (kong 不 可講 Yo'i must not say so, (improper languag-e). 

(Ho oi) ; k,tt 可愛佢 You may love him. 

('Ho oi' tik) 可愛的 Amiable). * 

(Chi (ho tim^i-' (1 廳, pat) 。no tuno^ ^shau 只 可動口 不 可動手 You 
may move youv mouth, but not your hands, i.e. scold Lim, but do uot、 

qio (f:m 可否 May it be so ? • [beat liim. 

Tiin' ju pat, (lio 斷 乎不可 On no account. 

'Ho 宵惡 Must be detested (detestable). 

You may depart. 

(Ho ; i wok, li; 可, 輕食利 You may make profit. 

£M5 pat, 'ho 無不^ Most certainly, very proper. 

'Ho yapj 可 人^^ May be heard (pleasant to hear). 

Ko' sbiit, wa- ^ho ^t'ing 个說 話可聽 That may (or ought to) be 

Shikj (in 'ho ^ya 食;!^^因 口] 也 Smoking- allowed. [lieavd. 

^Ni (ho (chi t6: 'mb (ni 你 可 ^1 ^ fj ijJi Are ^'ou quite sure of it ? 

【Ho ^yau ^p'ang- kii) 可有 察 There are proofs. 

'Ho 'ho 宵可 Exactly. (Ho ;loi 可來 You may come. 

It if? not as if of little consequence. 
There are characters in Chinese, which can with difficult}^ be reduced to 

grammatical rules. They can only be compared to our prefixes and 

suffixes, by which we form Adjectives from Nouns, Verbs from Adjec- 
tives &t3. 

NoTK 20. ― Tak is frequently used in connection with tsai^, denoting the 

suporhitive, as : ― -tin tak, tsai^ 得 1) 齊 Too for ; t:'i"? t:i】" tsai' 淡 

萍 j 齊 Excessively weak (said of tea) ; p (、? tak, kik, 暴得極 Ex- 
ti'enioly cruel. 


Grammar of thr Citi nesr Langtiaoe. 
The Verb. Atwiliaries. 

It boinf^ iinj)ossil)Ie for the people to un tiers tantl tlie monosyllulic words 
mado use of in books, they were obliged to eiiipluy ccrtiiiu words as 
auxiliaries, in order to convey their ideas intelligibly to their fellow men. 
{See Introduction), 


Ki) chcnk, 記着 I remember ; I do remember, or can remember. 

<KPtak)) 記得 Do. do. 

(Tang cheuk, 考着 V/ait. (Tang tak, 等得 Can or must wait. 

(Tang 'ha che' 等吓睹 Wait a moment. 

Fan' j'm cheuk, 貝 卩吾着 Cannot sleep. 

Most of these sentences, also express the Imperfect and Perfect Tenses. 


clieuk, 'k'u. 拿着 f 巨 Seize or seized him. 

MongS chouk, 望着 Look, looked or have looked. 

C".— sTs'am pat, cLeuk, 尋不着 ] , , „ , 
„ m, , , , , ^n7? ^ r 丄 can, or could not find It. 
(?. 一; Ts'am j'm cLenk, 浮卩 ^"着 J 

tLau cheukj ^ngo 留着芽 Retained me. 

jLau cheukj 'k'ii 


Retain or retained him. 

(Kon takj clieuk, 得着' Succeeded iu "his pursuit. 

IS Im' cheuk, ^k'ii 念着 1 巨 Think or thought of him. 

Cheukj kap^ To be in haste. 

clieuk, nc,ii 遇着 f 巨 Meet or met him. 

cheuk, lokj 無着、 落 I do not know what to do. 

; M (chi ,ho ch,ii) cheuk, lok, 卩 吾知何 處着落 I do not know what 
has become of him. 

The following sentences are all in the Court Dialect. 

Wo Mu ki eholi U 我牢 f 已着 H 里 I remember bim perfectly. 

Mun sie choh 漫 些着— Be not so hasty. 

Ts'm fang- clioli liuu 着了 I have at len<>-th discovered him. 

K"i cUoli yili pill sang- k'au 騎着 ~ "匹巷 口 He rode a suinptei- horse. 
'Ts'z sz'- ni pull pih choh kill 此 事你不 必著急 You need not l.e 

[anxious on this account. 
Clioh t/i'i tsi'ii yiu yili pui M'{i!L^'0t ~ Lci lum stiij drink aiio- 
Choli t'a tsin lui 翁— -他 來 Bid liini enter. [tluu' t'lip. 

Grammar of the Chinkse Language. 

The Verb. Anxiliaries. 

«Shai lingS 令, ^pi 俾 and clii) 致 are causative particlos and are 
extensively used in conversation. As the Classifiers have o(^cnsioned the 
jaro'on English " wan peesee boy," one child, so have the causative par- 
ticles produced the " makee" clean, instead of cleanse this. 

cShai %'u litt) 使 { 巨去 Bid (lit: make) him go. 

cSliai ^k'ii ,loi 便 1 巨來 Bid (lit: make) him come. 

s,M 'shai *ngo chit^ 'pnn 唔使 我析本 He does not wish mo to loso 

Ling'3 jan (ftm 〔hi 令 人歡喜 Make people rejoice. [by it. 

Ling* ^yan (shang LP 令 人生氣 Makes people angry. 

Mat, ling-2 ^ka jan ngo^ 'sz 

勿令家 人餓死 Do not let your IVi mi- 

ly starve, 

s,M (pi ^k'ii (king' kwo^ 卩 § 俾 f 巨經過 Do not let bim pass, 
cPi ^k'ii (cbi' td) if 卑 f 巨矢 P 至! j Let him know, ' 
cpi 'ni 'yau ;p,ing (on 俾你 有平安 Make you comfortable. 
Chi, 'k'u (sz (21) 致 f 巨死 Cause his death. 

The latter character is never used in Colloquial. Kaii〕 is used ui a 
similar sense. Teaching, showing how to act, to let cue know, being' al- 
ways implied* 

等 我教你 Let me show you. 

Kuu^ ngoi^ kwok, 《an ,hing- shi- -ngo 教 外國人 輕視我 To induce 
f'm'eignei's to slight me. 

The preceding examples will show the difficulty of always finding out the 
exact meaning of a word used in so varied a mannei*. 

Pit, 必、, (sii and their components mean : ― Must. 

'Ni sbi' jnt, Joi 你 是必來 You must Come. 

Pit) teng- ; hang 、 必!^ ^ Must go. 

Pit, iu' -se tsz^ 必 要冩字 Must wrife. 

Pit, iu' il; ch'ut) cmun 必 要預備 出 PI Must prepare for guing out. 

Mo' pit, 務 i^、 Must, indispensable (used in documents.) 

Mb' (sii iu' 務須要 Absolutely required. 

^Sii yung- 須用 Necessary for use. 

(Sa ; ii ^ts'z 須如此 It must be like this. 

Mi- pit, 未必 Must not, need not. 

Note 21.-^1 ch'i) 以致 in order to ; di? "i 教以 cause tliat • "Vi, tat, 

致達 To communicate 5 clii^ ii' 敎於 respecting ; ch'i' (chi I^^W to 
extjucl kuo\vlt;ilL;c. 



The Verb. Auxiliaries. 

Pit, liii) 必去 Must depart. 
" £m J 戈、 《表 Must. 
" ,u sh? 必 ^ 口是 It must be thus. 
" (king 必覺 It will be so in the end. 

(Ying- (20) 應, (tong' 當, (koi 該 Correspond to ought, should, that 
vvhicLi is becoming-. 

Tiin jing- ^kom tS(V 本 應瞰做 It really ought to be done that way- 
fYi"g(koi 、sz 應該死 Oug'ht to die. 

<Yino. ^koi fat, ^k'ii sbap, t"i: ,ua 應當 调佢十 大員 Ought to fine 
Li 111 ten dollars. 

Mi' jing- ji <ts'z 未應 如此 It oug-ht not to be thus. 

,Koi f、tong' (dm yeimg^ (ni 該當淳 樣呢 How ought it to be. 

s'ni (koi P 吾該 I beo- your pardon, it ought not to be so. 

<Koi -yau kom' (to 該有卩 li' 多 Should have so many of them. 

'Li (tong Idi; slicing; tai' 理當賴 上帝 It is reasonable that we sliould 

^Sho jtong- jhang- 所當 ?了 As we oug'lit to act. 「depend on God. 

(Slio (tong 'kong- }yy 虽 To speak as we ought to do, 

ill? JJ 眞, yuk, iu= 要, 'hang- 肯 ; oP 愛, 'scung 想 All mean to 
wish, to will, to like, to desire, to want &c. 

/Vs'ing fm; (sz 个寿 願死 f would rather die. 

lin^ -ni tcik, fuk, 顾你得 S§ I wish you mucli happiness. 

Un^ heung' (tung hiV 願 向東去 I wish to g-o eastward. 

Yuk, 欲, ttu; yuk, SM&i, yukj 意欲 To desire, to wish. 

yukj 'k5m tS(V 意欲顿 做 I wish to have it done in that way. 

I' yukj 'hi ; cli'ing 意 &C 起程 Wish to start on a journey. 

Tu' ; ni hii) 要你去 I wish you to quit. 

Iu> ; k'ii ^Ui (ku】,g 要 佢打工 I want him io work. 

'Ng'o iu' £nai 'shui (sz fu^ Joi 我 要泥水 ^ 币傅來 I want the ma- 
son to come. 

Hai' tsui' iu^ ,chi sz) 係最 要之事 Very pressing affair. 

P. C. ChP (kan iiV k (? sz^ 至緊要 ^ 旣赛 Most urgent business. 

; K'ii s'm 'hang t'iit, mo' { 巨 卩吾肯 He is unwilling to take off 

his hat. 

Note 22.— (Ying jsliing 應承 To promise ; (Seung ying' 外暂應 Mu- 
tually required ; ^seung- (tong ffl 富 Do. 


Ghammih or THE Chinese Language. 

The Verb. Anxiliaries, 

s'M 'hang ^ts'img 唔肯從 Unwilling- to follow. 

f 巨 唔肯着 衣裳、 He is unwilling 

to put on dress. 

(Chung ? 中意 to like. ; Ngo > (chung V ,m W 我唔 中, 意呢 
個 I do not like this. 
'Ngo oP ko) chekj 'kau 'tsai 

我愛個 隻狗仔 

I like that puppy. 
'Ngo oi' tseuk, (tsai 我 愛雀仔 I am fond of little birds. 
'Ni hii' fan' lok, 你去 ©!P 备 Go to bed. 
j'M oi) 唔愛 I do not like it (often heard of children). 
,M oi) ko' tik, 卩§愛個}^令 I do not like that. 
Oi' hok, 'ho sz' 愛你 學好事 I wish you to learn good things. 
Shik)— kwo) chung' 'sen no- 食 過重想 I have eaten some, but want 
s'M cs6nng (to (ti 唔 想多的 I do not want more. [more. 
(K(、)m M aare. ^k^m ts<V 唔敢做 Dare not do it. 
j'M 'kom (tong 唔敢當 Dave not venture. 

Mat) sshui 'kom (clio ^tong- 接敢 阻當 Who dares to oppose us. 
'Yau 有 To have. 

'Nl Syau rkung' /A ts62 stub (m' 你有工 夫 做無呢 Have you any 
work to do ? 

; Ni syau (hd ,to (td 'tsai ; md (ni 你有 好多刀 ff 有呢 Have you 
many knives ? 

'Yau ban- 你限 Not many (lit. The supply is limited). 

To have implied. ; Ngo 'ix ; ni ; ho (kon 我與 你何于 What have I 
to do with you ? 

s'M jkwi'in -ngo sz^ 唔 闘我事 What have I to do with the matter ? 
(It is no affair of mine.) 

'Ngo (t'ing ; yan wtV 我 ^§ 人 I have beard people say so. 

to' kwo) (shang ,shing /m .ts'ang 你―资 j 過 | 愈 P§ 曾 Have 
you been to Canton or not ? MP ; ts'ang 未曾 I have not. 
^N<2;o 'van peng- 我 有病 I am sick, 

2. The Verb to have is in Punti Colloquial frequently given by Auxiliaries 
expressinf^ to be. 


To hai^ 'mh (pi kwo' 'ni 者!^ f 系义母 俾過有 All (every thin-) 
liiis been j^'iven you by your {Kiroiits. 

■'Ni 1 ,]aug ^;hik, ko' -ye f 尔已 經食過 if The things you have eaten. 


Grammar of the Lanotjaoe. 

The Verb, Auxiliaries. 

'K'ii ,ki'ng ch'ut, lok, 佢 巳經出 Pg^ lie has just left. 

; yau ,no-an ; m<、 你有銀 無呢 Have you any money ? 
MP ,ts'ano->ii 未 I 有 I have none. 

"Ngo 'jau 我有, I have some ; 'nf -yau 你有 you havo some ; ; k'ii 
'yiiu IE 有 he has some ; 'ngo (sin ; yau 我先' 肯 I lind some ; ^ngo 
<t«'fing ; yau 我曾有 I have bad ; ; ng'o ,tscung 'y:iu, I shall havo ; Imt 
better : 'ngo .tseutiy Joi 'yau 我 I! 每來有 I sliall have. 
<-Y:ui w;? kW -nn^o ,chi' 有人話 過我知 Some l)0(lv has told me. 
SM' hid' i§, swai 力 I, ^nai Pj and tsoi; 在 express to be. 

* Examples. 

SI": ; npo Jo 是我 II It is 1. Hai' ; m' ,rae 係你 3 举 Is ir yon ? ,Wai 

jan 爲人 It is a man (23). ^N;ii h? 乃好 It iy well. Tsoi* 

uk^ slicuag^ 在 / 室上 It is upon the house. (24) 

Shuk./k'ii 屬 f 巨 It is bis. 

Ya"? 'k'ii hii) 任柜去 Let him go. 

Fong) ko) tscuk, 放 個雀去 Let g'o that bird. 

(Hii ,t'a ts6^ 許他做 Let him do it. 

Fong) hiV 放下 Let it down. 

Fong' pViii' 放石包 Let off crackers. 

The remaining Auxiliaries shall be treated under the head : Tenses. 

3. We now an-ive at a stage in the Chinese Grammar, where we lose all 
the beauties of western tongues without an adequate compensation. The 
immutable ideographic characters leave us to gTopo in the dark beyond 
the sintple Jxdure and the perfect tenses. This difficulty is increased 
by the Chinese notions respecting' eleg*ance of composition, which fre- 
quently runs diametrically ag'ainst a distinct expression of tlie tenses. The 
]»<)verly and iuHexibility of this peculiar tongue is, to the extreme dismay 
of the student, made up by redundancy. 

Note 23. ― (Wai cyan (tsz 凝人于 to be a son, i, e. to act the part of 
a son (frequently met with in the Classics.) 

Note 24. ― (Hm P 係 is frequently heard in Canton Colloquial ; but is 

almost always combined with eh'ii' ^ place, with which it forms a Pre- 
position or an Adverl^, e. g'. ^Hai cli'ii), to be in, or there ; ? m ^hai cli,U〕, 
liot to be there or to be out. 


The Verb. The Tcmes. 
4. The Present Tense. 

我寫 I wnte. 

You write or thou wrifcest, 
但寫 He writes. 


^Ngo (tang 'se 我等寫 We write. 

你等寫 You write. 

-K'il (tang' ^se 佢等寫 They write. 

Plural of Punti Culloqniah 

'Ng-o tP 'se 我' 驰寫 We write. ' 
-Ni 'se 你她寫 You write. 
-cK,ii tP ^se They write. 

5. Is 力 Future. 

5Ngo (ts6img 'se 我錄寫 I shall write. 
^Ngo pit, 'se 我) 、寫 、 Do. 

^Ng'O sbP pit, Joi 我 是必來 I shall (must) cerfainly come. 
^Ngo ftseung- man^ (clii 我 將間之 I shall (will) ask him. , 
^Ngo (tseung- Joi -yau 我 將來有 I shall have some. 
Hau^ Joi to' 後 3^ 到 He will be here, 

Tsz^ (kam a hau; pat, tsoi) sun) jan 自今 而後不 再信人 Hence- 
forth I shall not again trust prople. 

,Tseimg ,]oi pat, ^k6m tsok, U'm) 將來不 敢作亂 In future he will 
not dare to rebel again. 

6. 2nd Future. 

The Chinese Language though admittiTij2;" of constnictinns liy which to 
express the Second Future Tense, the native scholar nevei- d renins of 
framing so clumsy a sentence, as it would destroy ali his notions of elc- 
gfince of composition. 

我将 f 使徙我 P 旣銀 

I shall have spent all my money. 

, ,tsetmg Joi 'I" sai' ; ni ke' ; ts'in 你將來 俾徙你 " 旣錢 Yon '、vill 
hiive given away all your cash. 

In the latter sentence the future past is only implUnl, not oxpivs.^eil. 


Grammar of the Chinicsk Lanottaok. 

The Verb, The Tenses. 

7. Imperfect Tense. 

A variety of expressions havo been advanced by former linguists as ex- 
pressing tlie Iniptufect tense; but tliere is certainly neither word nor 
construction which we could safely recommend as an accepted form for 
expressinj^' that tense. In German and its cognate toni»-nes the Iin])er- 
fect tense stands either in reUitiou to the Plu])erfect or it is used as tlic 
tempus for historical narratives. In writing or speaking' Chinese the 
Imperfect and 'Miiperfect tenses are sometimes indicated by the context, 
at other times they may be translated by the Perfect Tense. 

8. Examples. 

^K'ii liii) kwo' 但去過 May be translated : lie went away, or he has left, 

佢 人屋之 時我已 

經出 門 When he entered the house, I had just left. 

; SM chik, pfit, Him 時値八 if^ It was jusi eight o'clock. 

Silt, 4ia jshi ^ng-o (fong- ch'ut) 着下日 • 我方出 Just when snow was 
falling- I went out. 

^K'ii (kong ciin (shii tsak, cli'ut, 佢 講完書 則出街 When he 
Lad finished his discourse, he left the house. 

Tsak) 則, .fong- 方, ; ts'oi 在, ching' 正, cliing 〜: b'm 正閬, ching) 

t'soP TF|^ and other Adverbs, when preceded by a sentence expressing 
a past action, begin another in the Imperfect Tense. In Adverbial con- 
structions, tbe Imperfect Tense is expressed by the Verb only. 


; (ki ,sl.'i Joi (ni 你幾 時來呢 When did you arrive ? 

P. C. '%o tsokj yat, M 】<;"') 我昨 來顿 I arrived yesterday. 

; K,;A (Id ; shi (sz (ni 恒 幾遗死 [5§ When did Le die ? 

c-IOi cts'in ; n'ln (sz 1;V 1 巨 前年夕 fcP 刺 He died the. year })cfore Inst^ 

Kfiu; .nm 'ho ,to ,kun M ^sheung (king' 舊年好 多官員 上京 A 
great many officers went to the Inst year. 

-Wong iU, ; k,i ^kung- (t^ iin- ; sliing 

往 月其攻 打縣城 Last niom'h 

hi; assaulted tlie city. 

(Sliaii 'to lok) 收倒 「各 Received it ; got it. 

9. Perfect Tense. 

The din meters expressing the Perfect tense nre in Piinti Coll: ; ts,ang 
1t, jiiu 堯, 'Im 了, q 已 and " .king. 已 !至; kwo) 過, 】i? 峰, (hV 
P 刺, lok) 略, (lo 關 and ,lo po) 擺嚼 are.affinnative and i-(isponsive ptu - 
ticles expressing' ciu'tainty in reply to question?. 


Grammati of the Ciiinrsr Lanotjaoe. 

The Verb. The Tenses.. 

«Ni shik, fun' ;, ra ,ts'ang (A 你食省反[1吾曾^^3* Have you diner! or not ? 

, k (? Hb hud ch'ut, ,mun ,ts'ang (m6 ^3"、^>旣老母 出 門 唔| "羊 
Has your mother gone out or not ? 

Hii) ; M 'hb (kau ,lo 去了 He has left a long- time ago. 
'K'ii 4 (Idng 【sz f 巨 已經祐 He has just died. 
'K'ii hii' kwo) ,me jg i 過好 Is he off ? 
Hii' (Ki 去[1刺 Yes, he has left. 

; Ni cts'ang ; m;'" yat, 'pa ,tb ^tsai ; in" (ni 你曾買 一杷刀 仔 
Have you purchased a small knife ? 

-Mai J{i 買綱 Yes, I have. 

(Ch't'iu lok) 抄略 I have copied it. 

sHang ^hm iff^ I have walked, 

; m k6' hok, (shang' ^lai jnn ch'ii) ,ni 你。旣'攣生]^係邊處呢 Where 
is your pupil ? 'Tsau (lo pu) 走羅 He has run away. 
The characters used in books are pat, 畢,; i 已, n (kiug 已經, ke' 旣>< 
jiia 元, jts'ang- kat, g^, -liu 了 &c. 

、 Examples. 
(Kong pat) ^^畢 when he had finished speaking. 
sTs'ang shiit, 曾說 I have said. 
Ki) kin) (chi 旣見之 As he had seen it. 
Patj jkingkiu' >^jjl^ Mi I have not seen. 
Mut) ; yau kin) kwo) 沒 有見過 do. 
Ts(V ^iin ^kung- ^^元 工 Has finished his work. 

The monosyllabic character of the language makes it often necessary to 
use a number of synonymous words, in order to express oneself with 

emphasis, as: 一 'I ; ts'ang shilt, kwo) -liii 已^^ 說) M 了 He has s"id so. 
With t.he exception of sliiit, all the other cliaracters denote the Perfect 

Ip, ,kmg- pVii' (p'mg (kung (仏 業經派 兵攻打 I have appointed sol- 
diers to the attack. 

B. Mi- ^sheung- pat, IP 未^^ 不利 Has not always been without g-ain. 
Ml- ^sheimg pat, 'koin 末 鲁不感 He is always affected 1)y it. 
Cbeuk, 'i cshennf>' 'fau 着衣 裳^^ Has he put on his dress or not ? 
Mi^ cts'ang 未曾 No, he has nut. 



T】ie Verb. The Tenses. 

Some peculiarities are connected with the use of 'liu. As tliey chiefly oc- 
cur in Mandarin Colloquial, I will quote a few sentences from Pieuiuie. 

( lYi — "i 打 扮巳了 I am now in full trim. 

(fcihau shap, H -liu 收 t 合 已了 I have collected all. 

(T ,& kiiV ; lii'i Joi 他叫 了 来 I have called him. 

'Lh jshan tai* ^tain ^liu 身大 了 For an old woman I have much 
courage (I am very bold in accepting- your favour.) 

Pin' pnt, p'iV (t,(i t'ui' 4iu 便 ^ tlSfilfi 了 You need not fear he has 
(or will) retire. 

Che' yaii- shi^ ^nan ,t'ai mukj Miu 运又 是難題 目 了 Also this is a 

Hak, (fong' Hiu 嚇' 了 He is frightened. [difficult theme. 

'Ya ft? th' kik, ch'ii' ; Im 也富至 ij 極處 了 Wealth reached its utmost 


^Yh patj ,kw^n 'ni sz^ 'liu 也不關 f 尔事了 It is none of yonr business. 

'Ya ^tseiing tsau- kwo' tnk, ya% 'tsz 4iu 也 将 就過得 日子了 He 
will hereafter obtain a livelihood. 

Yak, ; lii'i che' -cli'eung- tai^ (fai 吃 了 這 場大廢 After he has suffered 
so 111 u oil reproach. 

Jvong cts'oi yixk, ; lift sch'a ; Im RW/M 吃 了茶了 I had just taken a 
cup of tea. 

m Mi) niu 'h5 ^Hu 你去 了好 r You had just left, when &c. 

'Lni '\n\ 'yd mi^ 了 了也未 Is it not yet completed ? 

'Lh'i 4iu ^liu (chi sh? ; yau yat, (s6 p'i? 了 了 了 只是有 ~^ "些怕 
Finished it is indeed ; but I liave some fear. 

Shap, fan jing ,hung 4iu tak, 十分英 宏鋒了 得 I take him to be a 
" o - 。 [ giant. 

Cbe' (tang lik, ;賺 g ; ; ho -liu tak, 這等 力量如 何了得 H。wai'e 

we able to estimate his talent ? 

^Liii pat, tak, 了不得 Unequalled, matchless. 

The preceding examples sufficiently exhibit the various ways in which 
the word 'Liu is used. 

10. Pluperfect Tense. 
(see Imperfect tense.) 
J ,sliansj yap, uk^ ; slii ; k,i peng- cyan (king (sz -liu 

醫生入 屋時其 

病人 已輕死 了 The patient had already expired, when tlie physician 

,Pino- t.V ,tsiu tik„ jsliing (king fiik, hak, ^liu 兵到 蒸脑女 城已經 
^^克 了 The city had already been recovered, vvlien succour arrived . 


Gramhiau of thk Language. 

'JJia Verb. The Tenses. 

^K'ii (hi .shan ko' .shi jk'i ts'ak, ,king- (tsau ; lili 但起身 fiB 寺其賊 

已^ 了 When he arose, the thieves had already decamped. 

11. The In/lnifive. 

Where there is no inflexion of the Verb, there can also be uo form, which 
we call Infinitive, present and past Participle. We must, in the absence 
of these changes of the Verb, endeavour to learn mechanically the various 
combinations that necessity hns compelled the Chinese to form, in order 
to be able to express the tenses and all the niceties of western tongues. 
The Infinitive is expressed in the following examples : ― 

^K'ii 'ts'ing' -ng-o hiP 但 請我去 He requested me to g-o. 

(Sai ,shan 洗身 To bathe. ; Wong 往 To go; ,Loi 來 To come. 

-Ngo oi〉 ^se 我愛鳥 I wish to write. 

chi' 以致 and cW> ; i 致以 are sometimes used to give emphasis to 
the adject or the object for which a thing is given. 


i?_'Ngo k'ap, ; ii ; i yung; cM 我/ 給汝 以用之 I give it to you to 

[use it. 

,Ng kiu' s6ung') ,kung clii) ii^ pi; 吾叫相 致預 ft T called yon, 

[Sir, to prepare. 

(Kwan (tsz 。i) jan chP ;i 1^6) fuk, 君子愛人錄以祐^^昌 The sup- 
erior man loves mankind, in order to extend happiness among them. 

yik, ,t'a ,wai ck'i lok, 以 他 爲其樂 To benefit others is liis 
― [ deli-lit. 

12. The Present Participle is expressed in the following- examples. 

正 行之問 

官夫招 之翻' 障頭 Just whilst he was walking, an officer called liim 


T:'!p, .shiin ,clii ,shi, 'k'ii ^pa ,che tit, lok, (shui 搭船之 巨; fej^ 

^^落 水 Whilst goiug on board the ship, his umbrella dropped into the 


Kin' ^k'ii ^ni shP pit, oP 'Ic'ii 

見 佢你是 必愛佢 Seeing him, you 

must love him. 

In mnny other sentences the Present Participle is implied of which we 
shall give more examples, when we come to the Adverbs of Time. 

13. The Passive Voice. 

The Indicative Mood of the Passive Voice is formed by kin' 見, shau- 

受, rts(、j 遭, pi- 被, ; uiung and by tlie Prepositions (ii 於, (ii 于, 

wai- 爲 Sic. 


Ci H A M :\I \ It OF 'nil': (-'IIINKSl.: liAN'GIJ AC,]:. 

The Verb. Passive Voice. The ConfHtmial Mood. 

Ex AM PL lis. 

I am deceived. 

'Ni shau' cyan hoi- 爹人害 You have been injured. 
t^K'ii (ts5 ,n:'ui iwai ftljSlS%5 He is troubled. 

-k'ii 'ta SSftltT Struck by him. 

sMung ,k'i kail' Ihn^ 饕其 教言川 Tauj^Lt by him. 
; Mung ck'i 'ho Jin ^ ^ '| 錄 Pitied by bim. 

Benefitted by vou* 
WaP ,yan 'sh。 (x》 爲 人 所惡 Hated by men. 
Slip ,t'au k<? ^yo 是儒口 f5C 錄 They are stolen goods. 
Hai^ Wi tsb'- ke' 1^@;做口旣 Made by you. 
<Hi (ii (pi 欺於彼 Cheated by liim. 

14. The Potential Mood. 

The Potential Mood of tlie Passive voice is expressed by (lio 可. 


'Ho oi) 'k'u 可愛佢 He may be loved. 
"K'ii 'ho jmiing oi' 1" 巨 可家愛 He may be loved. 
<Ni kin; sz^ (ho tso^ Ijfe 件拿 * 做 This affair may by done. 
Thwe is no peculiar forii: of expressing the snbjnnctive. We may some- 
times conclude from the context that the sentence implies the subjunc- 
tive Mood ; but the passages may often be translated differently. 


*K'u wa= ^ngo oP 'ni f 巨話 我愛你 He says that I love you. 

-Ng-o (t'ing svan wa- -k'ii h\\ 我 聽人話 ffe 愛你 I liave heard peo- 
ple say that be loves you. 

15. The Conditiunal Mood. 

Tlie Conditional Mood is expressed by the Conjunctions "i 如, ycuk, y^, 
't'ong- 't'ong- 備, "yau ^ 菌, ^kau 句 an<l their combinations. (22) 

NoTK 22. ― The preceding- words are frequently used in a different sense, 
and the student will do well to pay attention to their transposition. 


U' (chi ycukj 'kvvai 惡 之若鬼 He hates him as the devil. 

Nothing- like cultivating virtue. 
Pat, ,ii ho :1b 不 如可憐 Mucli bottt'i to Lave compassion on him. 


Grammati of the Chinese LAN(.irAOE. 

The Verb. The Conditional Mood. 


B. L.— Yeuk/ho ,liaug,wai, tsak, pat, p'l? ,yan 若好 tf 爲則不 'Ifl 人 
If you act well, then you need not fear men. 

Yeiik, Mii tak) ,shan teak) mong^ tak, 4io 若起 得身則 望得好 It' 
able to g'et up, then we may hope for Ins recovery. 

Yeuk, pat) ^ts'ang* ^fi p,ong) -ng'O tsak^ Jvam sbP pit; 'yau (on lolc, 若不 

f 着我灵 今择必 有安樂 1 should have been at ease up to 
this iiKjinent; had he not slamlered me. 

; t) -yau cp'ang kii' 口有 憑據 If there be proofs. 

,IJ yeukj fd- (sz 如若 义死 If youv father were to die. 

(T'ong yeuk, oi) ; k'ii fpjf'gfg If (suppose) he loves Lim. 

■^T'ong- yeiik, pat) ^t'ing ,若 不聽 If he do not listen. 

'Ivau pat, kau) 苟不数 If not taught. 

'Kwo yeuk, liai^ ^kom MiM^i^i^M I^'leed if it be thus. 

'Shai sing) kwo: haP shin; ^ye 使 1『 生果 係善耶 If nature be good. 

Ycnk, k? iixn tsun^ 若 旣完梭 If the work bs finished. 

Yeulc, slip clrut, lik, 若是 tfi 力 ]f he would exert himself. 

Yeuk, ; in (hang ts6; 若然肯 ^女 If he would do it. 

. . 假郎 未得利 Supposing you could 

not make money, or gain nothing- by it. 

P'P ; ii. 如 For instance, suppose that. 

,Yan yeuk, 若, ,yau ch'it, 猶設, ch'it, (shai 設使, cb'it, wak, 

設或 are all used in the sense of if, suppose, perhaps. As also, Tsung' 

Mnva yat, <pnn ,heung- 縱今日 到本^ 郎 Suppose lie should to-day 
nrvive at his native place &c. 

T 纖 g', ,in sliing" tik, 縱 然滕敵 Suppose he were to overcome the 

cCh'u (fi ^ ^除 and ^ch'ii 4iu 除了 mean unless, and commence pli ra- 
ses ill the Conditional Mood. 

Shtf ,u 庶乎, shii) yi 庶幾 and miln- yat〕 萬 ~" ' stand for perhaps. 

Sliii' 4io -ya 庶 乎"^ 也 It may perhaps do. 

Man- yat, f—shmg' sz- 离 "- * 成事 He may perhaps fiuish the business. 

Really awkward. (Si'iu (siiu .ii ^yii 个旬 
1' 句如 ifc Very 力' (ii A\ yi f| 與 i'ri 也 With singular -ra- 
(Yau jau -yd 休休 如也 With great equaaimity. [vity. 
Exijresbions like those frequently occur in the Fuin 】Jog1". 


GaAM:\rAn of the Ciiinkse Lanouaor. 

Tke Vero. The Optative and the Iwperativc Mo()《h, A dvrrhs. 

. 16. The Optative. 

is expressed by : ― 

; V(i pat, tak, 巴 * 得) 『3 身 

Hnn^ pat. tak. 恨不得 } 界。"^ that, and un^ 風 y*: U, -d uV 耍. 

(Ki pat) tak, hiV 不得去 Would that I could depart. 

Would that I could see ijim. 

I wish you enjoy iiicnt ol" ])face. 

17. ' The Imperative Mood. 

P. ― Is in most instances simply expressed by the Verb; as : ― Hi" G'o ! 

Bfi off! Ii is more tmpbatically expressed if we say Hii' lok, -^Pff 

Be off! but absolute command would be W\ sbi- pit) liii' 你是 4f 、去 
You shall, must go ! 

(On Person and Nuraber see Pronouns.) 

Many Yer1)s have by some Grammarians been put under the 】]pac] of Au- 
xiliaries^ which are better treated under Adverbs and Prepositions. 

, 16. Adverbs. 
】, Aikerhs of Place. 
WherelV.—'^i (pin cli'ii' 〔ch,tt ^ni 你;、 處呢 Wliern do yon live? 
'Ni (Imi (pin yat, c\iiV jai cliii; (ni i 尔 Pj| 邊一 處居住 & Do. 
(Pm 邊吓呢 Where ? • 

cHo ch,U〕 (ni At what place? 

JTo ,fong 何: ill 方 Where ? 

C. and Hakka D.— Au 4i fji^M and tsoP (m'l 在 程 Where ? 
(Oil tsoi^ Where '? 

Here. P.— ;K'ii tsoP 'ts'z f 巨在 it 匕 He is here. Tsoi'- (ni ch,ii) 在呢 
It is here. 

Tsoi- ,ni ,pin 在呢邊 Here, or at this place. (Hai ch'li^ 卩係. ® [He] 
is here, there, is a very common expression. 

C. D.— Che' -H and tso? che= "li 在 這程, tsor 'ts'z 在 it 匕, (ts'z 

ch'iP 此處 and ,u 'ts'/ 於 it 匕 All menu here. 

Tliere. P.— (K'ii ko) jnu (cli'ii f 巨 j 固邊返 He lives there. 

Ko) cirri' ilSiM There. Where tlie Punti mix much with the Haldca 
wc liciu" now ami then 'lu'i (phi C^nn ,]iin) for tliere. 

C.-^M li Sim, 'nd cli'ii' miM. 彼, tsoi (pi ; S 彼, ,.Koi 'f(,ng 
該方, 'na (sho tsoi; ^「》 所在, (n;'i ho' cli'u Sf^liUl^ All there. 



Adverbs. Adverbs of Place. 

Whither, which way? V.—'Ki hii) (pin cli'ii' (ni 你去邊 jig 
"Whither are you going ? 

(Tsau hcung' (pin ch'i? (n'l 走向 邊處呢 Whirher did he run ? 
Hither, this way. P. ― ; Loi (ni ch'ii' 來!] IS|^, Ilt^uug) ,m ch'ii' liii) 向 
呢 處去, ^Ta ,nx ,t'iu W Joi 打呢 條路來 All signify ― Go or 
come this way. 

C. D.— Che' yat, cli'ii' 這 ~^ Hither. ,Loi chc' 來這 Come 

this way. T6) ^ts'z 到此 and to' 'ts'z ch'ii) 到化處 Come hither. 

Thither, that way. P.— ^Ni 'ti'i ko' ti^ W liii' it^'^l^W^^^"^ Go 

t.liither, that way. Hii' ko) ch'ii' lok, 固!^ Thither lie went. 

0. D. — (Pi ch'u' 彼處, heung' (pi 向 彼, -lui yat, ch'ii) 那 "處 All 
signify thither. 

Yonder. P.— HaP ko) ch'ii' tso; 係個處 坐 Yonder }ie is sitting. 
C. D. — (Pi ngon- 彼岸 Yonder shore. 'Pi ch'ii' 彼 Yonder place. 
P. ― Yau- (piii hii' 右邊去 Go to the right. 
(Tso (pin hii' 左邊去 Go to the left. 

Abroad. 一 Tsoi- ng-oi' kwok, 在夕' 卜國 He is abroad, in a foieig-n country, 
Tsoi; ngoP m'm; 在外面 Outside. 

TsoP Dgoi^ ,t'au 在夕 j 、頭 Without ; ng'oi- jnn. Outside. 

Witliin. 一 Tsoi- uk, noP 在屋內 He is within. 

ni'ii haP tsoP ,ka 1 巨 係在家 He is at home. 

; M h'dP 'iin P§ 係遠 It is not far. 

Hai^ ; Un f^JM, It is far off. 

Hai- kan- 近 It is near, 

(H6 kan; 好近 Hard by. 、 

-Iv'ii ; k,i lap, (li6 nin jg^jJL$f5S 

He stood n】oof. 

Bound about. ― (Cliau ^wai j^J 図 Round about, all round. 
Aside.— TsoP sp,ong (― 在傍邊 Aside. 

Above.— ;K,ii tsoi; Jau sheung-^ f 巨 在櫻上 He is nhove (upstairs). 

在下 Below. ,T'in sheung^ t? li-.' 天上地 下 He: 瞧 
above and earth below. 

jTs'in hau; 前後 Before and behind. Mm^'^ts'm 面前 P.efovo one's 
face. 'Ng-i'in ; ts'in 目 前 Before one's eyes. Haii^ ^pfn 後邊 IJeliind. 
Underneath.— Tsoi' k6uk, h:V 在卿下 Beneath his foot. 
jYau sheuiig- 由上 From above. 



Adverbs. Adverbs of I'luce. 

sYau ha- ; i ^slioung' 由 下而上 Come up from below. 
; Ts'in ,loi 前來 Com ft from before. 
Hau^ (Pin ; loi "^^^^j^ To come from behind. 
HeuDg' sheung'* ,pi'n 向 上^^ Upwards. 

" ha' 向 下 Downwards. 

,, jts'in 向 前 Forwards. 

'Ku (clUin ; t,au f 巨 滅 He went back. 
Hen no ' Iioti' (p'ln 向 後^ St Backwards. 

,, 'tung 向 j|C Eastward. 

" (sai 向 西 "Westward. 

,, pak, 向北 Noi'diwai'd. 

,, sTiara 向南 Southward. 
Tsoi^ noi* 在內 Inward. 

Noi; m'm; 內 面 Do. 

Heung' ngoi; 向外 Outward. 
Ng'oi^ min' 夕 (^齒 Do. 

P.— Tsoi^ fP'm ch'u' ,loi 在邊 處來呢 Whence do yon come ? 

.ni 邊條 路來呢 Whence do vou co.iio ? 
Wueuce do you come f 

,Yan cho cli'ii' 由何處 Whence ? 
Tsz^ ; h。 tP 自 何士傘 Do. 

cYau ; ho ,i tak, 由何 i7[J 得 Whence .lid you get it? 
; TViing (n"h,ii) 裡那盧 Whence f 
cLi (ts'z 離此 Gone hence. 

nu〕 kwo' (1)1' 去過彼 Gone hence. 'Ts'z ; woiig 化往 To go hence. 
Hii' l>:i- in Gone. P. ,Ts'ung ko' ch'ii' t^M^ Thence. 
(pi 從彼 Thence. 

C— cTs'ung- ^na ch'iV 從 處 ; ctsHmg- (ts'z 從 jt 匕 ; ,yau 'pi 由彼 do. 

cpun (hiking 向 本! 郎 Homeward. 
'Yau ch'ii) ; yau 有 jJi. 有 Somewhere there ure some. 
Pat, dun 5I10 cViT 不 論何處 Auv wliere. 

cMo ch'iV 無導 Nowhere. 

Cli'ir cli'ir JMl^, kok, ch'iV ; im〜 ch'iV p:if)、,) 無處不 ©J, 


Gram^tar of t it Chinese fjANOTTAOE. 

Adoerhs. Adverbs of Place and Time. 

e\n? cL'ii' -y:iu 處 有 Everywhere. 

Pat) Jun <lio ch'iT 不昌 01 叮處, pat,,k'u ^ho cli'iP 不狗何 處 Where- 
soever. -Wong- cloi 往來 To ami fro. KiP cloi 去來 do. -Slteung 
lokj 上落 Up and down. -Slieung lok; ; p'ing (on 上 落干安 As- 
cending- and descending- may you enjoy peace. Tsoi- (ts'z, tsoi- (pi ^^化 匕, 
彼 Here and there. 

2. Adverbs of Time. 

When cshi 時, Sink, fan' (cW cslu 食 f 反之 B$ When they were flinina'. 

-Ni 'Id ,shi -slieung ^kino- 你幾時 上京 When do yon g.o to the c:i- 

Pat, :lun Jio jsbi' 不, 命何時 Whenever, whensoever. [pital ? 

cShing (ting' (cW csbl 成 丁之時 Wljen lie attained to puberty. 

(Kara yat, 今 H To-day ; ,kam (t'in 今天 do. 

fKam -man 今腕 This evening-, ^kam ye- 今夜 To night. 

cMing yatj 明日 To-moi'i'ow. sMmg' (t,i'n @】 天 do. 

gMing- (ts6 明 早 Early to-morrow morning-. 

Hau^ yatj Joi 後 Come the day after to-morrow. 

cMino- (chiu 'tso liif 明朝 早"^ Depart early to-aioitow morning-. 

Tsok, yat, 昨 ; "Wong jat, 往 H Yesterday. 

,Ts'in yat, ^sz tl j^h Died the day before yesterday, 

Tsokj -man 昨腕 Last evening. Tsokj (? 昨夜 Last nio-lit. 

(Kam(cliiiict,s<、4、 朝早 This moniiug-. 

,Cliiu 'tso 朝早 In the mornin^^'. ^Man Hj^ilS At. ni^'bt. 

H;r ; .ng "1^^^ Afternoon. -Sbeung -ng J^."^ Forenoon. 
Clung"' -ng- 正午 12 o'clock. (AncW 晏晝 Noon. 

中夜 Midnight. ^Kam csln 今時 Now a d;- i_ys. 
'Ts'z ,sbi ittifl^ This time. To\kamyat, ? ij 今 To this day. 
Chi) ,kam yat, 至今 日 Until now. 一 
^Nong yatj 翁 B The other day. kak, yat, yar, P 愚 ~ ' 日 
Every other day. -Wong- -lai puP 往' ]! 豊于早 Last week. 
; Ts'in yat, ko' ; lai pdi' 前 ^ "個禮 拜 A week a^-o ; a week since, 
Hau^ yut, ko: ^lai puP 後一個 f 盖律 After one week. 
Ban' put, yatj 後 /〗 A week hence. 

; Ts'in ^Ipuntr k'? ; lai 11:'")前雨個1!1^", A fortnight ago. 
Patj 'kau 不;^ A short time ngo. 


Grammar oi- t h e Chinese Lanouacje, 

Adcevhs. A<lcerhs of Time. 

Tsanr cshi 暫時 A short, a little while. Knu' yat, 近 曰 Recently, 

(116 (kail M 久 Long ago. 'i 'kau do. Cliau' ,sbi 晝 

Day time. 

Yat, ; kdn Jmj By day. Y(5; (Mii 夜間 By night. 

cShing y (? 成戎 The whole nig'ht. ^Mau liak) 腕黑 Late, dark. 

B. — Kam -sli'i -令時 Now, at present. In* tsoi- 現在, in- (kaiii 現 
今 (】o. 

C. D.— Kam a 今而, muk, ha- 目 下, tong^ (kam 當今, ,kam (fti 
^ "^夫 all sig-nify now, at present. 

Ching') jkam 正今 Just now. 

P.— Tsik〕Mk) 卽亥 ij, buk, hd' 刻下 and tsik) :slii 卽時 Immediately. 
C. D— Lap, hak, aL$)1, cts'ui ,slii 隨啤, (tang' ,shi 登時, tsik) :in 
皂!! 然 immediately. 'Tang yat, ,shi 等 ~" Wait a little. Maa^ 
mkn- 慢慢 By and by. 

R— (la cshi 幾 B$ How soon ? Yat, (t'ing tsau; 一 聽就去 As 
soon as be heard it lie departed. B. 一 Yat: king- ~~ "經 As eoon as. 
'Tso 早 Early. 'Tso .shan 早晨 do. T':'ii) =tso 太早 Very early. 
Sheung^ 'tso 尙早 Still early. Suk, ye^ 夙夜, ,cliiu ^man - 翁腕, (ts6 
-man 早膦 ,chiu tsik, 朝夕 All signify morning and evening'; early 
and late. 

P. C— HaP ^ho du〉 係好晏 It is very late. ^Hi (slian dn' 起身晏 
He rises late. Tso tak) tsaP 早得 [[齊 Too early. 

行快的 Go quickly. Tso ,shi "oi 早時來 Come be 
times. Kan- ; loi 近來, kan- _yatj 近 日, m? 'kau 未 ;^, mean recent- 
ly, of late. cTs'ung- cts'in 後 "If, h6ung') ,s'm 向 先, ,ts'iu ; 前日 $, 
tsik, ,sbi 昔時 and -i cts'in 以则, signify formerly. 
cMo 'clu jiiio ^chung- 無》 台 無終, Sving-iin 水遠 Eternally, infinitely. 
"^Ku csln 時, sik, slii ^^時 Anciently, of old. 

.Tseung Joi 舞來, Hs'z Imu; ]1七 後, liau^ Joi 後來, i&'J 1 腦; gj 後 
denote hereafrer. 

fK'img) jloi 向 來, .ts'nng- "oi .f^ 來, ngat, (kam 迄今, to' Hs'z 到 ]{' 匕 
Hitherto, until nou-, even till now. 

,Kam ; i Joi 今 以來, ,kam ; i hau)- 今以 後, Hz' (ts,z "i hau^ 自 ift 以 

signify ― hencefortli, hence forward, 
llair -loi 


-tt^eiuig :loi 


AftenvmL', in f'uturt;, for Ibo future. 


Grammar of the Chin'ese Language. 

Adverbs. Adverbs of Ntimher and Order. 

A (king 已經 Already. Yip, (king 業經 do. MP ,ts'ang 未會 Not 
yet. Mi^ ; ts'ano- 'ho 未曾 Not yet well. P.— Top (kam 追今, toi; 
k'ap, (kam 及-^ Till, until now. 

B.— iat, (ii 達於, ngat, (U 迄於, k'ap, 及 and cbik, cbi' 値至 until. 
P. C. ― jLun Jau 輪流 Alternately. cLun Jau hon' 'shau 輪流看 
To watch in turns. 

3. Adverbs of Number and Order. 
Tai;yat) 第一 First. CI"') (sin 至先; chi' (ch'o 至%/; tsui) (shi 
tkjt do^ Yat, ;loi —來 Firstly. 1^ Jo^ 二來 Secondly, 
ctin t;in' TCS New year's day. ^Un ^n'm 兀年 The first year of the 
^Ch'o kin) 初 尾 The first interview. [reign of a sovereign. 

Tai- yatj (pan 第 ~~ "品 The first official rank. 
Mang- cbuno- kwaP 孟仲季 First, second and third of a series. 
'Gh'ung' (tsz 象子 The first born son. 

The last. Pat, (king' 畢竟 At last, after all. 
Chf (to 至多 At most. Chi' 'sin 至 /)、 ; tsuF ^^iu 最小 At least. 
Yat, ts'z' 一次; yat, ,ui 一囘; yat, ,slil 一 ; yat, (ts6 一遭 
Once, yat, %a 打一 ffP Strike it once. 
P.— ,Loi sz) =ha 來四吓 Come four times. 
Shb' tsV 數次 Several times. 'Ki .fan 幾翻 do. 
'Ho ,to ^ui ff'^fEj Many times, often. 

Hii) (ki (to ,ui (ni 去幾 多囘呢 How many times did he go? 

Hii' (Sam tsV ^*zzi^ Went three times. 

'Ta ,to yat, -ha 打多 — Pj^ Strike him once more. 

Yaii^ hii) 叉去 Go again. Tsoi) hiV 再去 do. 

Liin' shiitj 亂說 ; lUn) (kong" 冑 L 講 To talk at random. 

Ch'ut, yap, pat, cbaP -ya 出人 不制也 To «•(> in and out at random. 

(Sin ,shi 先日寺 Before. Tsui) ,sin (fung (tsau 最先 封洒 Offer wine 


^K'il tso^ c-ngo fp'ong (pin 但 坐 我旁邊 He sat on my side or next to me. 
^Jn hau) 然後 ; hau- ;loi 後來 ; hm hau' 尾後 Signify afterwards. 
Jjim cLau 輪流 By turns. Ts,z) tsii' 次序 In order, seriatim. TsV 
tiii- 次镇 In Older, ivg'ulai'ly. 
Yiit, vatj ~ ■ ~ ■ One by one. , 



Adverbs. Adverbs of Quality and Extension. 

Liin' tso^ 亂做 To do thing's confusedly. 
Ki'i.k> yatj yat, ; loi 隔 ~" ' 曰 來 Come every other day. 
^Mui tai; i- yat, 每第二 Every other day. 
-Mui yeung^ ^^樣 Of every kind. 

^Mui yat, y('unf>-- 每 ~ "様 One of each kind, distinctly. [together. 
,T'ung ,mai 同埋 ; kung^ 共埋 ; hop, kiuig^ 合共 Collectively. 
(Foiig 方, tsau- 就 and sui; 遂 Signify thereupon j whereupon ; ; wan 
sWan ~ZX~Z^ &c., and so on, and so forth. 

4. Adverbs of Quality and Ejctension. 

P. —(To 多 Much. (To,ti 多的 More. (K:'i (ti (t,im 力 Ull 勺添 Add a 

[little 】i】o!.e. 

Hs'z khm' (to 々口此 卩 多 As mitcli as this. cU (ni ti; kom^ (t。 女口 
呢的 l^tt" 多 (lo. Sham; 'ho 甚好 Very well. Shap, /an 'ho 十分 
好 Perfectly well, thoroughly g-ood. 

'Ho pat, .seuno- ; t'ung 好卞才 ^同; ,Cliu tak) ; iin 差 得遠; and tui^ 

(fan pltj 大分別 signify Very different. 

Shap, (fan (to jng-an 十 分多銀 Very rmich money. 

Pat, lun- (to 'sbiu 不 論多少 No matter how many (how much). 

^Ng-an pat) kau) 銀不够 Not money enough. 

c'M (slmi ,to tik, 唔使 多的 Require no more. 

Tuk, iu^ yat, ko) 獨 # *个 Only require one. 

Tiih -k'ii Joi Only himself came. 

Shap, Jan -lang- 十分冷 Quite cold. ' 

(Ch'a pat, Hin 差不遠 Almost the same. 

,Ch'a pat, fto 差不多 Do. 

(Ki ,u 幾#; shiV ,u 庶乎; slnV ,k'i 庶幾 Almost, nearly. 
Sht'iing- ha- yat, yeimg-^ 上 — Nearly the same. 
^Tseung kan- jf^^ifil Nearly, close to. 

(Fi kau' kW ^k'ii jaii ,to 像够過 但有多 He gave him abundantly, 

cPi kau) kwo: 《k,ii 俾够 Gave him sufficiently. 

B. 一 i) .sheung ,clii jliang- ; wai 異常之 《了爲 He acted extraordinarily. 

Kik, -mi 極美 Extvernely fine. 

K;? (ki、 talc, tsfii) 價高 齊 Exorbitant price. 

Kwai tuk, tsai' 貴得 li 齊 Do. 


Grammar of the Ghinese Languagk. 

Adverbs. Adverbs of Quality and Manner. 

5. Of Quality and 3Ianner. 

Ts6= kwo' 'ho 做過好 Done well. 

-Ngo jkam jShi 'ho 我^ "^時 好 I am well now. 

^Ngo ;, m tS7? sin 我 唔自然 I am not vei 了 well. 

Tso* s'm cheuk, 做 P^" 着 Not well done. 

Pit^ yeung^ tso^ 別檨做 Do it otherwise. 

It^ (sam ^seun^ 

熟'' (1、 想 Earnestly wished it. 
'Han sk'au ^k'ii 輕佢 Earnestly entreated him. 
Tsut) /in M) 卒' 然去 He left suddenly. 

Shik, tsz- patj ^sham 識字 潔 Indifferently acquainted with letters. 
-K'ii ,kom ,sam Mi) f 巨甘 A^i 、去 He went willino-ly. 
^K'ii ,on ,in csz j 巨 务然死 He died peacably. 
cT'6 .in kill' ^k'u 徒 斗佢 I called him in vain. 
^Ngau £in ii' cheulc, -k'ii 偶:? * 遇着" (巨 Met him accidentally. 
Shik, ; in kwo) -k'ii 適然遇 f 巨 Passed him by chance. 
T,o (to 頗多: Rather much. (Po (chi yat, i) 頗矢口 ― 意 Know ra- 
ther little. T'o cp,o ^hiu tak, 頗頗魔 f 尋 Understands a little of 
everything'. 'P'o ; nang Rather able. 

'Kan kau' 'shai 僅够使 Scarcely enoug'li for use. 
Tap k,oi) 大概 Generally. Ou the average. 
Tai^ pun) hai^ 大 半係草 It is chiefly grass. 
Takj 'bin 特 Especially sent. * 
Takj Joi Came on purpose. 

'Ta lo^ Joi +j* 路來 Came by land. . 
Tdp, cshiia Joi 搭 jlS 李 Came by ship. 
^Lun Jau (shau (kang 輪 流守更 Watch by turns. 
Ts'im^ tsim; 漸;! 車 jf Slowly, gradually, by little and little. 
m\' tik, ,shan '决 勺起身 Rise quickly. 
Ts'uk, hii' 速去 Go quickly, Tsik, ts'uk, 苣 |J 速 Instantly. 
(T'au (t'au shi' -ba 偷偷試 Just try it secretly. 
(T'au 'tsau 倫走 To steal away; to go away stealthily. 
Fatj jining fat) mitj 忽 明忽滅 Appearing- and disappearing suddenly, 
cti ; ni k6m) pjik, ^Pf^jlp^fi As white as you. 
(Sz .cli'iin 私 To communicate it secretly. 



Adverbs. Adverbs oJ、 Comparison, Indication and Interrogation. 

sYau toi^ ^iin ^yan ^待 遠 人 To act benignly towards strangers. 
,Yau an toi) :kii, 柔然 待佢 Treat him gently. 
jK'eung; 'ts'euno- (chi 强 之 Take it forcibly. 
Kom' ; iin 附 遠 So far! kdm) kan= I^H^ 近 So near ! 

0. Of Comparison. 
; K'ii hai^ yat, yeung^ f 巨甸 -一 樣 They are the same. 
'Kom ycung= ts^ tak, 職 檨做得 In this manner it will do. 
Yat, ycnmg^ 'hb 一 檨好 Equally well. 
Wak, ^che ;, m hai- 或者 ^§係 Perhaps (probably) not. 
jj (ts'z kom' hak, $l?lltP#M As black as this. 
(Chung (tang (cl】6 中等者 Tolerably, middling-. 
Tseung^ ; ts,z 像似; 'Lo -ts'z 好似, As it were, like. 

7. Of Indication. 

C— ^Sing qiu k'euk, shi^ yat, mimg')- 酉星 了 4|5 是一夢 When he awoke, 
lo! it was a dream. 

B. ― K'euk, tsoi^ 'ts'z ; i 去 [1 在 |t 匕矣 Behold, he is here. 
ShP (tsoi MM Behold ! ; Mi (tsoi 美哉 How beautiful ! 
(T'ai yat, 'ha 目弟 ~~ "吓 Look but here ! 

8. OJ Interrogation. 
The following- sentences are all Book language. 
(Yan sho (U'l -k'ii 因巧打 f 巨 Why do you strike him ? 
jWai Jio pat, ^se tsz- 

爲何 不寫字 

Why do you not write ? 

(tin jho pat, <lioi ^tan 緣何 不開單 Why did you not make out the ac- 

[count, ? 

,Ho ku^ 何故 On wliat account? ; tl ; ho 如何 How ? ,Ho Ai 何女? I 
sK'i (ho ;ho (tsoi 其可卞 哉 How will this do? [do. 
,K'i cii .ehi ,ho 寞如 S 何 How will tbat do ? 
jj (chi noi- ,ho $ 口之 奈甸' Wbal is to be done ? 
,U ,wai ,u (ts'z 胡 爲於此 How is this ? 
,U ^nang (tong (chi 

惡 能當; 2 How can one endure this ? 
tsuk/kong;(tsoi 烏>^ ^^哉 How is it worth speaking' of? 
Hot, pat, Jau cliii^ A,ivir 不留 住 f 巨 Why did you not detain liim ? 
Hop, (kwai "1 cloi 童 歸乎來 Why should we not return ? 
; Hai "3'au ; t's'in ftsoi 奚 ^ ^^哉 How has he any money. 


Grammar of ttik ChixVrse Languagr. 

Adoerbs. Adrerbs of Interrogation Affirmation and Negtttum. 

Mok, ,n hii filing ,u 莫 非你 兄乎 Was it not your brother ? 

(Hi ^jaii 'ts'z m cu 豈 有 it [^理 乎 How can there be such a principle ? 

cffi 4i ,u (ts'z ,u 豈非如 此 牟 Is it not so ? 

P.— 'M haP ^kom yeung^ ,n'i P§ 你 檨呢 It is not. so ? 
'FIj ;. yau =ts'z -li ; 《 ; m ok, ii ril 'ts'z ai and similar phrases are rhetoric 
questions, implying the affirmative: there is no such principle; and: yes, 
it was so. 

B.— In cyan i- 焉 離仁義 Why forsake benevolence and justice ? 
jn (chi (cW 焉知之 How do yon know it ? 「cape ? 

(On c—nang t'iit, ,shan ,tsoi 安 身哉 How will they be able to es- 
P.— (ia;sM B 寺幾 When ? cKi(kau 氣% How long '? 
(Ki (to 幾 多 How much ? 

ShP ^na ko= tik^ uk, 是 10 &々 居 Whose house is it ? 
'Cham yeung^ 怎' 蒙 (P.— Tim yeung^ In what manner? 

'Cham ^mo^hoyi 怎 麼好呢 How will that be well ? 
K'eiik, (Cham 'lin 去 R 怎了 H。w is it now ? 

<Chani ,mo hon' tak, ch'ut, :^! 、麼 看得出 (P.— (Tim =t'ai tak, ch'nt, 
歡々 得出) How will you find that out ? 

P'{i' (t,i'i 'cham tik, 个白 他怎的 Why should we fear him ? [traces ? 
'Cham noi- ^rao (tsung' tsik) 怎奈無 跡 How is it that there are no 

9. Of Affirmation and Negation. 
Shi- 'y^ 是也 Yes, so it is. P.— Oban haP 'kom yeiing^ 眞係 口敢' 讓 
Indeed it is so. Sliat, 'shau hai- -k'ii 貫首 巨 Indeed (truly) it is 
he. Teng-^ ,in 定然 Undoubtedly. 'Kwo ,m 釋然 Truly. 
(Ts'in maa- 千萬 By all means. Pit, sin 必、 然 Assuredly. 
:M6 4 無疑 do. B.— Ku^ ,in 固然 ; tiln' ,in j 乞然 do. 
Tso^ pat, Joi 做不來 It cannot be done. 、 
Pat, yfit, ^ Not many days. PaL, sin 不然 Not so. 
Pat) 4io pat, 不可不 It cannot be avoided, 

Pfit, cwai 不' t 偉 ; pat,, =chi '不 [fc ; P.— pat, tuk, 不獨; pat, t:W 不 

但; pat, cli'i) 不§ and pat, (cM signify Not only. 

Pat, flit, 不法 Lawless. Pat) liu- Unexpectedly. Pat, kok) 不 

覺 Imperceptibly. Pat, yeuk, 不 3^ Nothing better than. 

Pat. jt'ai Cch'e shiit, 不 題且說 Did not detail it, but [画 1, so id &c. ' 

本無 S 

Originally there is nothing' of the 】dmi. 


Grammar of the Chinese LANnuAOK. 

Adcprh.^, Adverbs of Conjunction and Disjuuctitm. 

B. (Fi ,in ,yan pat, 4io 多^ 賢 人不可 None but a virtuous man will do. 
(Fi ^pxiti fan\cla 多一本 之事 It is not your business. 
" fTitj pat, tsok, 非法' 'f^ 作 Do not commit an unlawful act. 

Nothings greater than heaven. 

莫 大之功 

Unsurpassed merits. 

,, kwo) (ii (sz 莫 過於浙 iNothing- greater than this. 

,, ffi ^se ts'o' 莫多 g 為錯 Have you not written it wrong ? 
Mut^ yat, yatj .bun 沒 一 H \% Not one day leisure, 
Yatj ko) '-yii rant, -jau ~ * 個 也沒有 I have not one of them. 
'-Mo shiit, kiV 無實價 No fixed prices. 

5M6 yung- kwi? lii- 毋 用掛慮 Do not trouble yourself about it. 
Fat, ,u (ts,z 弗女口 ]l£ Not like this. 
'jVIi csheung Uncommon. 

/Fin meng^ ^mi jslieung- 天 命靡常 Heaven's decrees are not nn- 

[changeable ? 

P.— Mi'- .ts'ang- 未會, Not yet. MP Joi (cW sz^ 未來 ^事 Future 
events. ; Mong' 罔 ; ^mong 亡 ; ^rno 无 ; ^mi 1 鼓 ; and (p,o @ (the re- 
verse of (ho ) are negatives chiefly occurring in ancient writings. 
Tsiit, 絶 ; tiin) 斷; man^ 萬 ; tsit, 切 ; kiit, 决 ; (tsung || ; taP 大 ; 

and jho 毫 when followed by the negatives pat, 不, cVtih 無 &c., an- 
swer to our absolutely [not] ; entirely [notj and other words expressing- 
intensity of assertion. 

Yat, (ti ;, m ,fnn pit.; ~ * 的卩 §分511 Not the slightest difference. 

^Yau ; mo ^^無 To be and to be not, to have and to be destitute of, and 
other words of opposite sig-nification shall be treated separately. 

1 0. Of Conjunction and Disjunction. 

Hara^ pfino-^ 】;\ng'; (td haP liin) P 咸 雜 都係薦 L They are altogether 
in confusion. 

Hop, ,mai tsd' 合埋做 Do it joinly. 

;, M (h^)lnn) tso^ 唔 好亂做 You must not do it confusedly. 
M"k;(hoi 零開 Break it assunder. 

M:ik, Urn' 擘爛 Tear it assunder. - 

K^) (hoi ; t'lmg' ; k,ii (kong' 隔開 同但講 To speak to each separately. 

11. 0/ Conchision. 
P.— ,Shau 'mi 收尾 At last, in tlie end ; lastly. 


Grammar of the Chinese Language, 

Adverbs. P>'e'positiom. 

B. ― Pat, (king 畢竟 Finally, at last, after all. 
'Tsung- (cW 總"^ In short, In a word. 


Aljout, round about. (Chan jWai 周園. (Chau ; wai Vuu (f'o 周圍 

There is fire round about us. 

About, nearly. Ti'ii^ yeuk, 大約; ^cli'a pat, (to 差"^ 多; ,chYi pat, 

-iin 差 不遠, cli pat, -iin 離 I 不遠, and sheung^ 上 下. 

Tai^ yeuk, ha? ^k6m It is about tbat. 

Sheung- h4- kom' ^hung' 上下 P 甘紅 About as red. 

,Ni ^eung kin^ ^ch'a pat) (to 呢雨件 差不多 These two pieces are 
about the same. 

About, concerning. K'ap, 及. Lun^ k'ap, 'ni 論及你 To speak 
about (concerning) you. 

'Kong k'ap, ^k'ii 讓及 f 巨 To talk about him. 

Lun^ ; yan 論人 To talk about men. CW' (rt 至於 Concerning^ res- 
pecting, about, is only used in the literary style. 

Yeuk, yat, pak, tai' ciin 約 "百 大員 About one hundred dollars. 

將去 About to depart. ,Tseuug 'sz 將' 夕 About to die. 

Kj:m"ng、sW 近午時 About noon. 

Above 上 Sli6img\ Tsoi^ 'ni ,t'au sheung^ 在你 旣頭上 A bove 
your head. 

Hai- (slio pat) k'ap, 1^ 你 所不及 Above your capacity. 
Yatj ^m^ -jau ,to "碼有 多 Above one yard. 
Pat) kwo) yatj ch'ek^ ^ko 

不 過一; i 高 

Not above one foot high. 
-K'ii tsoP Jau sheung- f 巨 在樓上 He is above (upstairs). 
According to, Chin' 照. Chi{i) (sho (kong 照你 所講 According 
Chid) lut, fat, ; 、律法 According to law. [to what you say. 

(I /in 'f^ 专 According to your word. 
On) jp'ang kii' 按憑據 According to evidence. 
iiir' § 口願 According- to your wishes. 
lingS 如令 According to order. 
jYing kau^ (kw'ai 'kii 仍 舊規矩 According to former usage. 
Hopi ; li 合理 According to renson. 

Accross. 5 Wang- kwo' ,t"m ^過 田 Went accross the field, or 'Ti 
,wang kwo' t"m 打橫過 ffl do. 


Grammar of the Chinese Language. 


After, (Kan 'cni 跟尾. Tau jan (kan ; ngo =mf 有 人跟 我尾 There 
is some body coming- after me. 

B.— Yun hak, luk, tsuk, ; i to' 人 客陸續 而妾 ij The guests arrived 
one after the other. 

-K'ii bau* ^ng hii' 但 後吾去 He departed after me. 

Against. Yik, 逆, ngak, 够. Nguk, (slmi @水 The ciirront is 

ag-ainst us. ^Ngo 'tang tsok, yat, ; yau ng-i'ik^ (ftmg' 我等昨 日有錢 

Yesterday the wind was ag-ainst us. 

; K'ii ,shi ; sl】i ng-kk, ; ngo f 巨 3#時15^ 我 He is always against nie. 

Along. sTs'ung 從. JVung' taP (kii .1 Jiang 從大— 《每而 行 Go 

along the principal road. ^Hing tai^ -p'ui shang 兄弟信 j 了 The two 
"brothers went along together. 

Along implied in the following sentence^ ; Ng'o (k4i ^ni cli,ut) hii) 我^ |^ 
你出去 I will go along with you. 

P. ― Amid, amidst. (Chung^ 中. ; K'ii tsoi; -ni ke' jp'ano; ^yau ^chung tso- 

-Jia iok, 佢在你 P 旣朋 发中 坐卩 下卩各 He sat amidst your friends, 
or lie seated himself among your friends. 

Among, amongst. ^Chung 中 and (chung (kan 中 間. ^Ni (chung -yau 

tsok) liin) ke' jan 你中 有作養 旣人 There are rebels amongst you. 

^Yau r'm 'ho ke' tsoi- noi- 有唔好 卩!) ^ 在內 There are some among 
them which are not good. 

.Chung- ^Un 'yau hak, k6), pak, ke' k'ap, ,wong ke^ 中 間有黑 口旣, 白 

P 旣及黄 P 旣 There are some black, white and yellow ones among them. 

At, tso? 在. TsoP 在家 At home, in; tsoP 現在 At present, 

TsoP (king jshing- 在 ^ 城 At the capital. 

j ,ka sliik, fan^ 而 家食飯 At dinner. 、 

Before. ^Ts'in 前, 'Ta cheung^ ,cln ; ts'in 打 仗之前 Before the war. 

(T,in tP (chi (dn 天地 之先 Before heaven and earth. 

(S'm kwo) ; nf 先 尔 Before you. ; Ts'in yat, 前 The day before 

yesterday ; ^Ts'ia liau- I^JIJ 後 Before and after (speaking of space), (fe'm 

hau- 先後 Before aud after (is chiefly applied to time). 

Behind. Hau' 後 and hau' jnn 後邊. "K'ii -k'l hp, tsoP higo hau- ,pfn 

'但 企立在 我後邊 He is standing behind me. 

-K'ii hau- (pi'n Joi 佢 後邊來 He is corning from beliind. 

Below. H;r ,|)in 下 Tsoi- nk, hi? j/ui jnu Hsau ; fbng 在厘下 

^^有酒房 There is a wine cellar below the house. 

(88) . 

Grammar of the Chinese Language. 


,Ni fai' shek, h〈i; ; yau tch'ung luP 呢 塊石下 有蟲類 There are in- 
sects beneath this stone. Tsoi^ (kung hu- ^jau (kau jk'ii 在 宫 下 有 
溝渠 There is an acquaduct beneath the place. 'Ngo tsoi^ -k'ii ke' 

4-'ono- (pin tso; ha^ 我在 f 巨'】 旣旁 邊坐卞 I seated myself beside 

Besides, ling' ngoi' 另 夕卜, .Cb'ii niu 除了 :KxcIusive of. ; Wan ; yau 

還育 Still more. Ling; ngoi^ «yau (ki kin; 另夕 |* 有幾仵 There 
are a lev/ things besides. 

Between, ^Chung ^kdn 中間. 'Leung ,shan (chi 雨山 之間 
Between two mountains. 

Betwixt, ^Chung 中, ,kan 閬. ^Leung jiian ,chi ,cbung 兩 難之中 

Betwixt two evils. ,Shang 'sz (clii tsai' 生 死之際 Betwixt life and 

Beyond, kak, ngoi^ 格外' Kak) ngoP (cM jan 格夕 [* 之' g Favor 
beyond measure. Kwo' h;W 浪 Beyond the fixed time. 
Pat, ngoP 'ts'z 不 夕卜乎 it 匕 Not beyond this. Fat, 'sho pat, k'ap, 
法 所不及 Beyond the reach of law. 

By, 'i 以. Man' mfin; pat〕 (lio 萬 萬不可 By no means, tak, 

fukj ; yan 以德 月艮人 To subdue people by virtue. 

由此 門出去 Go 。ut by this door. 

Yung^ ,lio ,fong fat, ,ni 用 何方法 ^fe By what means ? 士 

Pi' ^ni hop # 你害 Injured by you. Lun^ ,kan mai^ 論斤賣 To 

sell by the catty. ^Leung (kan '^tau 藍/ f* 斗 To measure out by pecks. 

Yat, ,k;m 日間 By day. Y(i、Mn 夜鬩 By night. P"i)(shii 背静 
To say by heart (lit. to turn the back to the book, as is the custom among 
the Chinese.) > '- 

By reason of ,Yau Hs'z ,clii kiV 因 匕之! ^一 

Because of ^Yan ^ni iin' han- 因 你怨恨 Because of your hatred. 

On account of (Yan ^ni puP yik, 因 你背逆 On account of your ob- 


By dint of ; I 'kan shan^ kau' meng' 以缠慎 救"^ By dint of care he 
saved his life. 

Concerning, Lun- k'ap, 論及, Lun- k'ap, -k'ii 論及但 Concerning 

Down, 4Ia 下. ^Ha (slidn 下 jlj Down the liill. 'Hii ; lau 下樓 
Down stiiirs. 

Contrary to. Fat, hop, to' ; U 不合道 ffl Contrary to right principles. 

G"!"MM.、n OF Tii K Chin !', sk Laxcuaoe. 


s,M Iioj), ? 合意 Contrary to one's inclination. 'Fun sing) J^'! 生 
Ooiitniry to luiture. 

Dimnj5, (Un f^, ; sW D$. 'Kong ^shii ,clii ,]dxn 講書之 |I9 During 
the lecture. 

'No^o cliii^ tsoi; ; tleiing- 'kong' di'i ; sM 我住在 香港之 B$ During- my 
stay at Hongkong'. 

Except, ,Ch'ii 除. .Cli'li 'ts'z (cM ngoi^ '!^^^1!:匕;2夕[* Except (cxcep- 
tiui^') this. 

For, instead of. toi^ ^ngo '.shoung- (king 

但代 我上京 He will 

go for nie to the capital. 

For, because of, (Yan (ts,z (cM kiV 因 '丄' 匕之故 For this reason. ^ 
Wai- ^nii ^tsai ^sz Irak, 爲 卞仔死 55 He cries on account of the dXjIi 
For the sake of. WaP I'l^ 乂 爲禾! J For the sake of gain, [of his daughter. 
From, ;Yau 由, tez; 自 , ; ts'Ling 從. 

Tsz; ^Hcuno- 'kong ch'i) 'sliang- ; sliing 自 香: 巷至 '翁城 From Hong-- 
kong- to Canton. 

jYaa ki.n- k'aj), ; iin 由 It 及遠 From the near to the remote. 

Ti=z- ^ku ; i cloi @ 古] ^來 From of old. /lYung' fat, Ivwok, ; i ,loi ^ 

法國 束 Fiom Frauoe. ,Yau 4d ,u ,yau jaa ,u 面巳乎 由/、 

Does it corae from yourself or from others. 
Tsz^ -wung d Ijau- 自 往而後 From the time lie 】eft and after wrords, 
In, Tsoi- 在, noi- 內. TsoP csbing- 在域 In the town. Tsoi' 'shui noi* 
在水內 111 the water. Tsoi- ,fa ,iin 在花 園 In the Garden. 
]ii conse(|nonce of, ,Yan 因. (Yan "lang k(? 'ngo (tang (kAi peng^ 因 
冷故我 # 皆病 lu consequence of t he cold we 、vw'e nil sick. 
In spite of. Ng-ak, (ts,an, ke' raeng' ; i .bang 5^ ffi'^ft If 
He did it in spite of liis father's cc^a^iawftd. • - • '- ■ '■ 
Into. Yap, noi; TV 內. Yap, 4o ^shii ,]nng- noi; A'? Got 
iiito a rat hole. 'Ts'ing yap, noi- 內 Please enter [into the room]. 

Yap, 4u cfong 人裡房 Wpn t intn the room. 
,Cli:un 'sbui yap, (kong S'l ''K A 'i^ Pour the water into the jar. 
Fong' lokj J:im noi; 紋 落藍內 [it] into the basket. 
In virtue of, cP'ang- 憑. .P'ang- ,t:'m ,c]u -ngan 憑 眾支銀 The mo- 
ney si tail be ]);u(l in vu-tiie of tlie oh'-que. 
Near. Kaii^ 近, n H- 




fKii cM; kau^ 'kau Juno- ; shing' 居住近 九 Hi 减 He lives near Kau- 

,T'iu kwok、 -"i 天 國邇矣 The Kingdom of heaven is near. [lnng\ 

Substitutes for kan^ are: ― /tVan and ts'ik^ ^^, which signify near 

in relationship ; The opposite of whioh isj (slio signifying that which 
is distant in relationship. 

Of, ,,lunig 中. -Ngo ^p'ang' -yau (cliung, ^ni hai^ chi) ke' 我朋 
友 中你係 至好嘅 Of all ray friends yon are the best. 
Kan) Joi 近來 Of late. I' (tt ,siu fa' 易- 於、/ ft 化 Easy of dig-estion. 
'Kong k,ap2 講及 To speak of. 

Off, ; tin ; li 遠離. ; Li (te'z ; Un 離此好 導 If is far off. 

IliPlok) 去 Be off! ,Wan ("m kwo) 'k'ii 還 翻過但 He has 
paid off bis debt. 

On, upon, Shpung^ 上. ^Ni po^ (shU tsoi^ ,t'oi sheung- 呢 部書在 
幅上 The book is on the table. 

Fon.!4' 'ha tsoi^ ^ngo yau^ jnn 放下在 右我邊 Put it down on mj 
right side. 

Tsoi? \i' in? 在地 下. On the ground. ,U ^ching- Ut, 於正 月 In the 

ih'st month, lu? ? 故意 On purpose. 

Uiit. Ch ut, [ij. Ch'ut, jinun 出門 To go out 'of doors. 

cMo jts'iii 無錢 Out of pocket. Ch'ut, jsliing- 出 诚 Gone out of town. 

Ch'ut, ,u ; k,i ,kan 出 乎其閏 To go out from amongst them. 

^K'u ,yau (shui ch'nt, Joi 佢?^ 水出來 He came out of the water. 

Opposite, TuPrnin^i^jij. ^K'u tuP m\n' c\iu} lok, { 巨對面 住口备 
H(3 is living' opj)osile i". 

k6〕 P haP ,seuno- (fVui ; ng'。 k6) 你 意係 相反我 。 旣 Your views 
are tlie opposite of mine. 

Owing" to, ^Yan Jc'i ^cli'e ^hang- ,kam ^yau jp'an ck'ung' 因其^ ^行 
f^^^^^^^^^ Owing' to 】iis extravagance he is poor. 
Round ftbont. ^Olian ,wni 周園. 

S 霍. niu 除 了 • /Jh,tt Mill Hs'z yat, \W 除 了 it 匕一件 Save 
this one piece. 

,Ch'u (ts,z yat, kin' (chi ng-oi^ (kAi haP ^hd 除此一 件之夕 [^皆 係好 
All are good, save tljis one piece. 

Since, Ki, .in 自 J, 然, KP /w ,u (te,z 旣, 然%此 Sinc(4 it is thus. 
Tsz^ ,ye .su M ; loi 自 耳 口? 織以來 Since the time of Jesus. 
^116 (kau 好久 

Lon^' ,since. Pnt^ (ka'ti Nut since. 




sYa" 's'lii jshi 由小時 Since my cliildliood. 

Til rough, /r'uno- 通. /r„n- ,hang 通行 To pasy through. 

Kwo)(ru t(V :im'mpi); 過呢度 f^lTV Enter tlirouo-h this -nte. 

(Ni 1)6' (shU sl.P yat, k'oi' ― ke' Pj]^ 部 翳是 一; f^Pg 好 P 旣 Thia 

book is bad tlm)ng-hoiit. 

Till, until, Toi' kap, 追 及. ToiVJoun Till now. 

(ki'i top k'ap, 一自古 及今 Q From ancient time till 

Tsz; jcliiu chl' ; ng" 自 朝至午 i'l'om morniiio- till noon. [this duy. 
Chi' ,u ; 16 maP 至 5^: 老遂 Until old ,. 

Shatj ti>' (t'in ; ming 殺 到天明 They went on killing- until break of day. 

Ngat, (kam 今, k'^ip. (kam 及今, toi^ (ii (kam 返, 今 hi-nify till 


To (sign of dative, see Cases.) Tui' 對, "i 與, W 和, cliP 至. Tui' 
4c' ii WiV Speak to bin:. 

'tr ,Vd An 與他 #*, t,aP ,ta sliiit, 替他說 Speak to him. 

今 u 

To-day. (Kam ve^ 今夜 To-mj^'lit. Tsz? pak, (Ung 
cW)(k、vong(tunghai"i'ml^); 自:!^;京至詹東係遠路 it is very 
f;u' ii'om Peking' to Canton. 
cM(b yiing' To no purpose, 

cPi kwo' ^k'ii 俾過 Gave it to him, 
Wu^ ; ni sbiit, 和你^ t Speak to you. 
Touching', see convernin<^'. 

Towards, Heuno-' 向 . Huuno-' ^nam ,p'ui 向 南邊 Towards the South. 
'Shui henno'^ (tung ^lau 7】〈 向東流 The water flows towards the east. 
嚮 向腕 Towards evening*. 

Went towards the west. 
仲 天嘆 Looking* towanls Iieaven he sighed. 
cLain ^chung [5 品^^ Towards the end of life. 

Under. HiV 下. Tsoi^ uk) pui^ ,clu 在 屋 背之下 Under the roof. 

'iM ke^ ,cli'd tit, lok, ",oi hh' 你口 旣叉跌 蕃 j 臺下 Your feik has fallen 
under the table. 

Up, Kgp.t, 迄. Ng-af, ,kam 迄+ Up to this moment. 

起於心 T'— ) rise up in the mind. 

"K'ii tsok, yat, c Viang- yjeuug- (slidn f 巨 [?^ 日 了上! _L| Yesteiday he 
walkc'l lip the hill. 


Prepositiohfi. Conjunctions. 

With respect to. ChP ,ii 至 

With regard to. Lam; k'ap^ 論及, clil' (ii 至於. 

With, ; ti 與. 'J、Tgo;iihii;m^)(kon ^|與《尔無干 I have nothing' 
to 'io with you. 

; it Vi kit, yenk, 與 你結約 To enter into a compact witli you. 'TJ 
ciaun 5t'ung- lok, 與 民同樂 To i-ejoice with the people. -i\go st'ung- 

I will dine with you. 
'i ,to kot, -nl 以刀' #)你 Cut you with a knife. 
"I 'cln wak, ^^^猎畫 To draw with the finger. 

Ling; cinan ,sam Mi shun'- 令民 、與順 To inspire people witli ohe- 

TsoP -ng-o 在我 It rests with me. [dieiice. 

jT'ung- jan shang lo- 同仁 路 To walk with one. 

Within, jKan 間, noi' 內, (cl 讓 g' 中. 

<Sain snin ^clii fkiin 二年之 間 Within tbree years. 

HaP nop ^cluing- 係 1^ 中 It is within. 

HaP tsoi^ noP 肉 (C3) Do: 

Without, ,mo 無. ^Mo ; ts'in 無錢 Without money. 

-cMf) kfi' 無故 Without a cause. /rs,t:'m]g' ngoi; 牆夕 |、 Witliout the 

cL'i j)a ,chi nooi- 離邑 $ 夕卜 Without the hedg-e. [wall. 

TsoP ngoi; 在夕 [* Without. sMo sliik, yunj^'; 愈拿用 without food 
It will be observed, that the correspondiiiG' sonse in Chinese is not always 
expressed by a Preposition, but by a Verb &,c. 

The Chinese language possesses many words of this class. They are, 
】iowem', not applied to the same extent as iu our western tongues; and 
as many of them are used as Copulatives, Causatives arui Disjunctives, it 
is of the (>Teatest importance to the student to aquaint himself with their 
various signification. 

And is expressed by k'ap> 及, ^ch'e 且, pin-' 逝= 併, J 而, 也, 

-ii 與, ; t'uug 同, A'm 建, cling 零 &c. 

我及你 I nnd you. 

FiV k'ap, filing- tai- 兄 i 弟 Father and brothers. 

,Ping p(V ,1dm ,kung- po^ 兵部 兼工部 The Board of Wnr nnd the 
Eoard of Works. 

The position of (1dm frequently differs from that of k*ap, as : ― Fu- -mo Jiin<^ 
tai- ckipi hiT 义母兄 弟兼去 Father, mother, and brother — )nrtwl. 
NoTK 533. ― ^ Chung and noi^ are cliieliy used as Poptjxisitious, 

G n A M A n OF Tiiii Cii iNT'sK LANrmAor,. 

Cull jv net i(ms. 

FiV 'c]i6 kwai' 富且貴 Rich and honorable. 

且 when preceded by ^1 implies httiice, as :— ,P'an ;i 'cli'e Wm' 
貧 而且賠 

Poor and hence despised. 
'Ch'e 且 sometimes stands at the commencenicnt of a narrative, as ; ― 
(C'li,6 shiitj J^g^ And it is said. 

signifies And further. 
AVith, Jn see ; hi tsak, 然 則. 

sometimes inteiclinno-ed witli ping'' 並. Uk, ping' 。'an 

Mi (Sliiu -lid 屋並人 皆燒了 Both house and men were burnt. 

Piiig'' fiemientlj takt^s the place of (kim as : 一 (Hing tu? 'tse mui' 

pmg')(kwai 兄弟 女且妹 並歸 [Both] brothers and sisters returned. 

In popular literature and narratives we find ping) frequently followed 

by fi 非. The negation is then expressed with 画 re einpliasis, as: ~ ■ 

; K'ii n (shau ping' (fi H kwan) ^th (chi f 巨 以手並 非以棍 ff 之 He 
Struck liiin wiih the hand and not witli the stick. 

Ping^ hop, 並合 unitedly, cs6ung' ping)/ 始並 to compare with each 

other, and ping^ lap> 並立 to stand together^ are combinations^ in which 

ping) 並 is used as a verb, or a particle expi'esing' con^ 、vitli, or together. 

Yau^ 3^ though more frequently sij^-nitying moreover, again, stands 
also for aud, 

-K'i'i ma* "liu yau^ ^ta, ^tA. ^liu , yB,n^ ma^ 但馬了 叉打, 打 了叉羈 

He scolds and then beats, beats and then scolds 'again. 

Maii^ kwo^ yau^ man^ 問 過叉問 Asked iiiid asked again. 

J 而. ^K'il ko' jts'z ; i hii' 告辭 而去 He took leave ami departed. 

Hok, sW t8ap,,clii 學而時 習之 To learn and constantly practice it, 

Pat) /in sun) 不 百 (fo |^ He said nothing- and yet was believed. 

Yikj 'jau cVan J 亦 有仁囊 而已矣 There is benevolence and 
justice aud that is sufficient. 

Piitj ci tak-, 不思 而得 He does not think and yet obtuins all that 
J 而 followed by ^ch'e in")lies inference. [he desires. 

^Sliun Jiiiig、i(ch,"fau )Si 輕 而且浮 The ship is Wght ond hence floats. 


有房屋,也有田^^,也有家資 He possesses bouses, fields and 
' [ licLes, 

Yatj ,h6 ; yfi ,mo ngoP "~ "毫? 也無碍 Not the least impediment. 




; ti 4i ^no-o 你與我 You and I. 

jYan Mi P 仁與義 Benevolence and justice. 

山 in 連. Fu^ cUii ,hing t.;ii' 义速 兄弟二 I'he father and the brothers. 
sT'ung 同 . ; m £t'ung- ; k,U hii' tak, f 尔 ! Sj f 巨去得 You and he may go. 
,Ling- 零. Yat, ])uk, Jing- (s;1m ~ "百 零二 One Imn'lred and threr. 
Also is expressed hy yik, 亦, yau^ 叉, -ya 也, k'a]), 及, jik^ sin 亦 
然, 'yk 'yau &o. 

; K'ii yik, 'seung- (t:i ; ni 1" 巨亦 想打你 He also wishes to strike you. 

A) (ko yik, man' ; M -k'ii |《^?哥 '尔 SHjn 下 { 巨 Also my brother asked him, 

'Ni yau; pat) (ch'i 你 叉不知 Do mn also not know ? 

Yai? tso^ ch'ut, man^ mat; 叉 造出萬 物 He ako made all thing's. 

chek, ,kai yik, liai^ ; k'ii ,sliiu lok, \jfi ^ ||亦係但'境口各 He also 
roasted this chicken. . 

^Yd 也. (Sm ; nil -ya ,mb fuk, 乂 J 、女 也無福 My little daughter is also 

^Ya slip ; m(、 ,ts'an ii; pP ; M 也是 母親預 備 了 This also has been 
jd'epared by my mother. 

£Ya ml^ 4io (clii 也未 可矢卩 This also is not yet known. 

^Ya -yau ,sho, 'ya H-nn mat, "liL^^^^ HIL f j ^ There were open 
places and also secluded parts. 

'-m hi;' cmo (ni f 尔 去無呢 Do you go '? Tsz; ; in 自 . 然, Certainly. 
'Ns^o yik, sin 我亦然 I also. 

雖然. 雖然 此, Althong-l) it 

<Sm /in haP ^iom 雖, 然係嗽 Thoiio-h it be in that way. [he thus. 

paf, hii' 雖不去 Though 1 do not depart. 
The Conjunctions yet, still, are frequently omitted in composition as well 
as in conversation, as : ― 

,Sui ; in hai^ ; king, ; ng'o pat, kok, Hang 雖然係 ;合, 我不覺 :合 
Tliouo'li it be cold, I do not feel cold. 

Yik, 亦, ^In 然, k'enk, 却, sheung- 尙, ;》' a 也 exjiress i/et, still, when 
used as Adverstative Oonjunctions, 

佢權 雖然大 

^^有 事其 所不能 Though his power be great; yet there are things 
which be cannot accomplisli. 

KVnlc^ pat, sik, 'liu 去 P 不 *| 昔 了 Yet it is not to be regTettf^tl. 
As, as : ― ; U (sh/m koin^ ^ko 

如山 pH' 高 

As high as a mouutiiin* 


Gram mar of the Chinksk LANorrAOK. 

A s <2'oo(l fis yon. 

(m (siiii ; li ko) tP kt、m) tui' 呢 部書如 箇的卩 H "大 This book is 
as large ar^ tliat. 

sK'ii qcong (h(、 ^ts'z tsaP ^tsau % ^^溝好似'$^、;罔老 He speaks as a 

《K,U ke^ wi? 1i6 Hs'z ^yam tsui^ ,yan ki? w;V f 巨 , 旣話 it 子似欽 @$人 
P 旣話 HivS languag'e is as if it were the lan;^uap;e of a drunkard. 
,Chiiig ,\x Mc'ii 正' 加但 Even as he. 

C1",V ^ng*o kin) 照 fi^, 愚、 昆 As far as my linmhln opinion goes. 
Ts6ung2 ^ts'z 像似, 16uk, ^ts'z § 似, 4bn- fat, 彷佛 all signify as it 


Because. ^Yan ^wni 因爲. ; Ngo 5,m oP ; k'n, jan ^wai ; kTi /in 'ho 我 

唔 愛佢, 因爲 佢唔好 I do not like him, because he is not a g'oocl 


Besides, Hnp;' ngop 另 夕卜. Ling- ngo? /m hn? Jing IP 另夕 |、f 巨 

P§" 係伶俐 Besides, he is not clever. 

况且你 身有病 Besides voii are siclc. 

Both, ping,) 並, ^Hing tai- hai^ shm^ ping^ ^ts'ung sTning* 兄^^ 善 

並^ M "^月 My brothers are hoth virtuous and talented. 

.Sham :Un ^hai mok, Siii) 衫連 鞋刹诚 They robbed him both of his 
jacket and of bis shoes. 

But, tau^ 

土 f|^, 但我 遠來 P 旣 Y。" are from here, but I am from afar, i. 
e. You are a native ; but I am a foreigner. 

'Ntro ,hin ,fonr>- haP 'hb 6m', swai ; ni ,kan pat, ,in ^ff^W^M^' 

'淮你 灣不然 My room is very dark ; h'lt yours is not. 

gWai 卩隹 and ^wai j^f^, the same as jwni 惟. 

J 而' ; in 然, 4n A 然而, cin S';! 然也 occur only in bnolcs. 

P>nt for. Yeak, ^fi 'ts'z cTtm ^np-o tsiik, pai- ; i 

若非此 人我則 矣 

But for this man I slionld have been ruined. 

But that. -NiTO tso- tnk, yeuk, pat, p';V 我做得^? 怕 I could do 
it, hut that I am afraid. ' 

Else ; Yenk, pat, Hia ; loi ; ngo =ta ; m' 若不下 ^ 《我 丁你 Come down, 
else I beat you. 

tCh'ii 4iu 1^ 了 also signifies else. 

Eirlier— nr. Wak, 'fcs'ii pat, wak, Hs'ii 'clii —或 ©華 或取紙 Take 
either the pencil or the pnpor. 

Gn A:\rMAR ov THii Chinese LAvouAiiE. 


Wukj sLiu^ wakj ok, iSc ^ ^ J© Either good or bad. 

*Ni Wi\k, Vong- wnk, Joi 你 或 往或來 Either go ov come. 

Yik, clii) yik) ^fau 神 至称否 Either he will come or not. 

Even, ; lin 連. ; Lin min; ^to ; m sai 建面都 唔洗 He does not even 
wash his face. 

jLin ^ng-o (t'ing ,clil 連 我聽之 Even T myself heard it. 

; Lin (i fok, (shau sink, ,to ; m k'm) 4iu 鍾衣月 ft 首飾者 5P§ "見 了 
Even her garments and head ornaments could not be found. 

Except, unless, Yeuk, pat, ^"^^. Yeuk, pat, cli'ut, aig-an ^ng'o -fai ^kun 

*fu 若不出 銀我打 官 jflj* Unless you pay the money I g'ct out a 
summons for you. 

Yeukj 若非, and ycuk, cmo ^ ^無, are used in the same sense. 
Yeuk, pat, 'm'm lik, 若至勉 力 Unless he exert himself. 
Finally, Kau) =king 究竟, pat, ^king 畢竟; (shau -mi 收尾, to' (Uii 
至 l]^ 底 AH convey the same meaning'. 

fSlmu s【ni ldn〕 -k'ii k6) Jiang* ^wai^ (t,ing -k'ii ke^ shiit^ wa-, ^ngo teng* pat^ 

^chun 收尾見 徂嘅行 &攀 佢! >k 說話, 我定不 ?会. Finally, 

observino' his conduct, and hearing- his conversation, I determined not to 
grant his request. 

(Chung' ^cli6 ^^^*, and ^tsung' ^cbi 杀患 S signify, In conclusion. 

For, introducing' a reason, k,oi) ^yan ^m^ng ^ya 盖 人盲也 For he is 


I(,oi) -no'o (t,ing (cM 盖' 我^ § 之 For I have heard of it. 
.van 因, ,yan ,wai 因爲, ,uu ^ts'z 緣此 and ; i 以 (the latter in *>lie 
r)th chnpter of Mutliew, Deleg'ates' Version) nr^ so froquently met with 
in literature and conversation as to require no furtlier exj)lanarions. 

Fuvthermoi'e, is expressed f'ong) ^ch'e 况且, ^cU'e ^fu 且夫, ^ch'e 
而且, yau^ 又 and ling' ngoP 另 夕卜 

4v'u \yau gts'in k(? "yan, ling^ iigoi- ^yaii f!ik) 佢有錢 嘅人, 另外有 

He is ricli, and furthermore he is happy. 

Only, tau^ 食 7. T:in' jlnii ynt, -ytm 但留 ^ "人 He only left one mrm. 

T:in' pat, ^t'ing w;? 但 ^ 聽話 Only beiriQ- flifiobedient. 

(Chi R 'Ola p'iV s'? piit, (職 tons') Kjft 事不 £l 當 I only fear 
tlint tlie business is not secure. 

'nhi .sain yat, tsau- Joi 只二 H 就來 Only tliroo days moi'e tlion lio 
will come. 

"iN'y'<j 'fill tony' i);U' ,clii 我 FVs^i 不力 ! I oiil^- protetnlcd ignorance. 


rSllAiMMAK ( ) I' TU li Oh INKliE LANdUAOl!. 

Co nj u nci ions. 

(CM tak, 'hi .ch'iiig' 只 得起程 He coultl do iiotliino- but set out on 
a journey. ' 

'Ch'i \vr viit, R —17. 六 f3 Only woll nbont 5 or G diiys. 

'On 'kuu long' (sam 只曾放 jC1、 Only qinVt yourself. 

'Ohi 止, ^cbi yau yut, ko) sts'in ifc 有 ~ "乂 錢 I liave (ml_y one cash. 

'Chi <ts,z sz^ 止 it 匕事 Only this aff;.ir &g. 

Tai' 第, as : ― Tai- niiir "iii 食 零念你 Only remeiiiboring you. 

(Ti'ui hai- yat, ko' 單係 一个 Only oue. 

(T;'m (ting yat》)' 單丁 一 个 Do. 

jwai 惟, cwai 唯 iuul cwai 維 are used as Adversative Conjuiictiuiis 
and stand f— bi, onl,).i , hut. ' 

Tuk; 獨, tak, 特 also siii'iiifv only. 

Pat, hai^ (ts,z, hvhi 'i、i 不係 lit ,力彼 Not this, but tlint. 

Not but that, as : ― (Fi pac, 'kii ; k'ri ;, m 'hh kt? ^yaii 多 估 f 巨卩 好 

P 旣人 Not but that I think him :iu honest man. 

"K'ii pat, tnk) hai- clii) Wiii- k(i\ 'nui yilc Lai^ syun oi) ke' ^yan 但不獨 

f 系智 慧嘅, 7》 亦係仁 愛暾人 lie is not only intellig'enf, bun 
also benevolent. 

rat, (clii pat, 'di'i 不止, pat, (cW pat, cli'P 不音 pat, 

(tan 不單, pat, tuk, .-^^fi^, pat, tai" 不 桌, pat) t;'m; 不 但 are in 
general followed by 'u;ii ~Pj 、 but ; yik, ^yau ~^}、 宵 there aro also ; yik, 
Imi; 亦係 there is also Sec. 

Not only not, pat^ tuk, pat) >^ f^^^ and similar sentences are also fol- 
lowed by ^mu 7^ and other Adversative Conjunctions. 
Nothing l)Ut, ^wai 隹, ^Wai liiu^ '淮菌 而 已 Nothing- but anarcliy. 
q【,n 《m6 ^ye tsoi^ ,ka, t(\n' yat, k。) ,toi f 巨無 ^ 家, 但 有一个 
毫 He has nothing in his house but one table. 

I saw no 

cue, but him. 

Hence, sliP :i 是以, ^slio ; i ]j/fiil .vnn (t?z 因 化, kiV ^ts'z tX lit* 
^8bun ,ko Hi t(d' sliP pat) Joi 山 高 \f} 大是 Ji^ 不來 The niountaiii 
i^^ high and the rain heavy, heiioci ha docs not come. 
ShP H hii clicuk, 是以你 着 Hence you are rig'lit. 
Wi ; in .ts'ano- k'uV ngo kiV Ms'z mi-<» pat, Ini 你1!吾曾!^^我故此'了走 
You v.1id not cull inv, hciicc I did not cuiuc. 


Grammar of r h e Chinese Lanouaou. 


Ho \i ever, see Althoug-h. 
If. yeuk, 若, Sx 如. 

Ycukj patj 'hang ^^不 肯 If he be nnwillinfr. 

-'N'ro yeukj or yenkj -ngo pat, hii) 我 S^, 若我不 i* H' I do not de- 

如有心 If he has a mind. Jpurt. 
jj ;. yau yat, (cM pat, 有 一枝筆 If he Las a brush. 
Yeuk, Imi; 'k6m If it be thus. 

Yeuk, > tsak, Ml^jJ If so, then &c. 

Respecting (t'ong' 倘, 't'ong- 儒, (kau 苟 and 'shai see Verb, Con- 
ditional Mood. 

Lest, =liung- 恐. 'Hung ,k'i 'ta lan^ (clii 恐其打 '!;鬧;^ Lest lie break it 
c'M Mio tai- fSliing- 'kong, ^hung (k(mg, (sing 'k'ii 唔 好大聲 講恐驚 
酉星但 Do not spenk loud lest you awaken him. 
Likewise, yik, ^f^f^^ 

'K'W 'y^n tsV kwo^, Vi yik, ,in 佢育 錯過你 亦然' He is at fault, 
and you likewise. 

Moreover, yau- jL^y foiig'〕 'cb 

'van 另 有 and cWan -yau 3(S 有, 

Yau^ cwan ^Lz!^ Moreover he said. 

Foiig^ ^ch'e ^k'i pat, Jun 'hi "ni 况 且其不 歡喜你 Moreover he was 
not pleased with you. 

Liug'2 -yau (to gts'oi pak, 另 有 多財窜 Moreover he has much wealth. 
Nevertheless yik, sheung- 'cli'e 尙_@^ &c. 

Nor, yik, 亦. ;, m chany', ^ugo yik, (hang, f 巨 唔肯, 我 亦 
肯 lie will not, nor will I. 

No sooner. Yat, kin) -kHi tsau^ 'td 'k'ii ~ "iS^f 巨就打 f 巨 No sooner 
did he see him, than he sti-uck him. 

Neither ― nor, !) at) ― pat, 不, 不. Patj ^ta pat) (tsau 不 打不走 lie 
would neither fig'lit nor run. 

5,M 'vvonj^ 、,m Joi P 吾往 P 吾來 Flo would neither go nor como. 
^Mb Mk Mio ,k、vai, ,m6 hV (ho (i);m 無家 f^l^iS, M 路 Ti¥ ^1'^ 
no home to return to, nor ro id for escape. 
Nor, eitlici'j can be variously exprosserl, as : ― 

二 Ngo ; m(、 cUgiin, 'ai yik, ; n3'、 r have no mon'、y, nor 

you eitluu". 




Or. Yik) wak, ,u <ts,z ^^1)或々口11:匕 Or is it thus ? 

Jv'an (chi yik, Hi (chi 求>^ 神與 S Did he ask for it or was it given 


Was it you 

or your sister ? " 
ProvidoAl Cf 'oiig- ycnk, 偏若 or ch'it, >euk, 設若, 
Tong' talc, ;k,ii 1":) di-an ,vvan ; wan 笱得! ©'Stifi 云云 rroviJcd lie 
get his luorioy &c. 

Since ki' ; iii 旣然. Ki) c'ln jii 'ts'z 旣然 口此 Since it is thus. 

'K'ii ;, m' tso^ (ii sli? (chii tak, pit, ko) ,yan f 巨 1§败 '於 招 ^ij 

^^人 He will no loiigor stay, so you may cull another person. 

Still. cWan -yau 還有 Still lie has some. 

Shoung'^ 'ch'e pat, (hang' 倘 且不肯 Still he would not, 

.Ying- hai^ ^hd 仍係 "^"好 Scill it is not good. 

cYing sheinig^ -vvono- (pi 仍 尙牲彼 Still he wout there. 

Jn yik, \yan ,clil '《洛 亦有之 Still it does exist. 

Jii mi- 1^ ,然'^^[]禾義 Siill it is nut righteousness. 

Yiiii^ ])utj Mjo '可 Still more improper. 

,Ydn V 允異 Still more singular, or still more strang-e. 

Than, Mok, ,i (t"m 莫 大於天 Nothing* gueatev tlian hiv.w n, 

T:'u- kwo^ ;k,ii 大 Ml 巨, Greater than he. 

(Respecting* than, see Comparativo) 

That ch? 致, ^shnL 使, lin-^ 令, tsik, shi^ SP 是, and tsik ha^ 卽 係, 
signify tlmt is. 

Thon, tsak, pjj as :— IVnm tsnk, ii' ^clii 尋-灵 遇之, Seek then you 
slitill find. 

叩門 則得 3^, kuok then it, will be opened 

to you, 

(Clii kW tsuk, (koi 知過 則改, If you know 3'our t.ransgi'esidous 
then reform. 

,Ohi jUgan t.sak, 'ho ^lijv'H'j 可, Give tlie money then all is v/pII. 

Cii'nt, calling Jong 'hb [i! 城方 &子, Leave tlie city, then all will be 
well. • 

'N'l ^yau tak, ,fong- (lio fnk, jan 你有 德方可 服人' you possess 
virtue tljen you may subdue people. 

(Foiig tak, 'Id ? 方得 |」i 意, Tic tlu'.n ! lis v ish. 



Conjiinctwvs. Explei'vf.^. 

,Fong (lio 方 可, It will (In then. 

(Fong、t,s,oi ch,ut, hiV 方纔 出去, Tie lliea departed. 
-Nai ts5^ tak, J^J ft f^, It will tlien do. 
"Sui^ ,cliiu jcln ^才 He tlien called him, 
Piir ch6iik, 便^, Til en it will (U. 

-K'ii ^sbeiino- -no'o tsnn- 】ol(; f 巨上戏 Jj^、Z 各, Tl" lie ascpnd, then T dos- 

Tsan'-cloi 就來, Then come. [ceml. 

Therefore, 'slio ; i 所 0, shi^ ; i' 是以, ki? 故, sli'r kiV 是 i 化 ,yan 

(fs,z (^此 (see hence). 
Tiioiigb see AltIjou2-h. 

Too, yik, ; in 

(h6 kiin"ng'o yik; ;i'n 你好 倦, 我 亦然' you are very ti'rod, nnd 
Unless see except. 「f too. 

Wlien, tong' 當' Tong) tsoi; Rit, kwok, .clii ,sln' 當 在法國 
When I was in France. 

Whereas, 夫, ChuV tak, 照得 • 
Wherefore, shP kiV 是 故- 

Whether wak, 或. Wak, shin- vvdk, ok, 或善 或惡, Wiunlier gmul 
Yet, slieuno- 尙, yik, [or bad. 

cYau (ho 猶可 It may yet do. 

U;rp】 Hives. 

They are .ojeiierally employed for iniproviiiu' tho style; ami ; 飞】 so as subsli- 
tntes f('i' our puiictuationj in wLicli InUfM' qu^ilit.y they ore of \\\e. utmost 
importance not only in writing' intelligible cumposition, but })ai'Ucuhirly 
in conversation. 

They may be divided under five heads, i.e.: ― 

1. ― Auxiliaries in compo^iition ; 

2. —一 Suhstitiites for Notes of Tnterroo-ation : 

― Substitutes for Notes of Exolanuition and Admiration ; 
4. ― "Rxpressino- the Indicative Mood ; and 
0. ― Interjections. 

1. Avxiharies in Coyipcsition. 

In Tsiil" J\ cki xi^^^ Ffi To rely iijion your own resonvcos, refjiiire 

only tsuk, and ^k'l 已 to complete the sense, cU serviii;^" only us uu 
Auxiliary to tlie rliythm of rhe lanytiage. 

Kan^ cU (chi 近乎知 Ilns nearly attained to wis^loin. 

Ch'ut, ,\\ tak, fij^f^» Proceeding from virtue. 

Essentially Hl、'f' voin'Sf^lf. 


Cham m \m or tm k (Ju in i:se Lanottaok. 

T(V 'yd 'cU pat, Mio Ji 直也 者不 可 t 切 t ' n、c vi^lit way iniiy not ])0 
(lopovted from. 

cYan (cl"〜 ^ynn ^yii 名人也 Mmi liinisolf is ])enev<>l(Mioo. 

.niniiig y» ^clio (t',in h;V (chi td? ^pan 'yh 中也教 天下之 大本也 
The duo medium is the g*reat root of every thing uiulor lie;iv(Mi. 

2. Suh-ititutef^ for N(》tc")f I)iterro(jaUon. 

卩丁 ― ^Ynn "I 仁乎 Is it beaevolonce ? 

V "I 義乎 Ij^ it rig-hteousnoss ? 'Bo ,u 可乎 May I ? 

^Hi ^ho tak^ f^J ^ 辱乎 How cnn it be oljtnined I 

cYe I{|J.— Slu^ cvA (f'i 是耳 |J 非 If|J Is it ri-lit or wrong ? 

此豈近 於人情 W II-v does this 

accord with human feelina's ! 

(Ciiii 諸. 一 ; Yau (cliii 有譜 Is it indeed ? 

,Yan ^yau 'she ^cliii 人 有舍諸 Will you reject it ? 

sti 與-與 it,K,;iu (cM "I 求之與 Did you entreat him ? 

Tukj ; ho ,u ® i 可與 How is this I • 

cTn hau- fai^ (ii ,sam ; ii 然 後快於 、與 What pleasure can this affonl 
to your mind I 

Wai^ ,fi (k(、m pat, tsuk, (ii (liau ,u 爲 1] 巴甘不 足方々 口 "Is " on 
account of the rich and sweet food not being' sufficient lor your pnlate ? ,, 

(Iling sniiii pat, tsuk, ^ii (t'ai ; ii 輕' 緩不 乂^ '5^^#i5K: " Have you not 
enoug-h light and warm clothing' tor your body ?,, 

JIo i»at, shall- ai 何不 愼與 Why slioiilil we not l)e careful ? 

(Tsoi 哉 .—(On tsoi^ (tsoi 安在哉 Where is it? 

Jvwaa ^tsz ^to ,ts"i 子多 乎哉 Does a superior man need so 

sHai (ho (tsoi 

奚可 哉 Is ii possible ? L''''''i'y - 

3. Suhst'didcsfor Notes of E.i'ckmathn. 

(Tsoi 哉. 一 T;U; (t!;oi 大哉 flow u-veat ! TIow important ! 

SIun= (tsoi jk'i ;' m 'ya 善 哉 W 也 His woi-cls how ex col lent, ! 

<Tn (tsoi jUi -ya 賢哉 i^ijiSi How virtimus a iiiiin is :1 丁 i ! 

'IVii- (tsoi sbino-' jan ,chi 1(V 大哉聖 人之 也 How suljlime is 
the doctrine nf sngos ! 

Tai- ,tsoi ni'.in^ ''y':、, 大 也 TTow inipoi'tiTiit Ihut (im'sliiui ! 
; U ^J^. ― ji 宜乎 IJow ,)V()per it it* ! 



兮. - 鎖 良之水 淸兮 Tlovv 

clear the water of'/l's'ong lon^^ ! 

,Ts'ong- long-^ (cM ^sluii chuk, ^liai f 食 浪之水 獨兮 How tnrl)i,l the 
water of" /I's'ong- lonp;- ! 

Hakj sliai (l"in cliai 赫 兮喧兮 How majestic I How glorious ! 
(Pi ^nn ; yan ^hai 彼 美人兮 That beautiful person ! 
(Fi'i 夫. 一 S!mm* t;'ii\fYi 甚大夫 Ho-.v very <^reiit ! 
cNg 4 (t'l'i 吾矣夫 I am gone ! 

In Court CoUiMjuial we also meet tsak) ko) 則 |SJ as an exclamation, as: ~~ 

Shii' tsui' tsak, ko) 怒 M ffi Oli pnnlon the offence ! 

cWono- (t,in (ho Jin tsak, ku' 皇夫! ^1 雞 [fij 筒 Oh heaven ! have 
coin[)assion on me ! 

4. Expresmig the Indicaiioe Mood. 

^-Y\\ 也. 一 Sli'm^ 'che cV;m 'ya 善 者仁也 GooJness is benevolence. 
(T'in luV (lio (k、vau 'ya, tseuk, luk, 'ho jts'z -yn, pak, yan; Mio t(V -ya, 

(oJmng' (vrnij? pat, (ho cnang- ^ya 天下 可均也 ,爵藏 可辭也 ,白 

刃 蹈也,中庸不可能也 Yon may sulxlue tlio world, rofiise 
distinctions, tread upon naked swords, and yet be unable to maiat:iin tlic 
due medium, 

-Ng-o mi- ,clii kin' ya 我 末 之見也 I have not seen such. 

rat, tsuk, waP -ya 不 足畏也 Not vvortli dreading-. 

Idn) ,k'i tsiin) ^ya, Idn) ; k,i (dif 'ya 吾 1| 其進也 未見其 

Xfc 也 I have seen him progressing, bul never stopping. 

Pat, (ho ^ya ^ 可" You may not. 

i^, (Sam pat, tso 卩 ; i'n, ITis lipart forsook him. Sz' 

shi sbang Jn, m;'u? mat, (shang ; ''n ^\ 日$ 行釋 It "勿 生焉 The 
four seasons return in order ansl all things come in their season. '.Slio 

lokj pat, jts'iin Jn 所 樂不存 That in which he 'lolights is not here. 

(Yan jan ; in 夂砍焉 Very joyfully. 

Fot, ;'m i 忽焉 Suddenly. , . 

如天焉 As in haeven. 

fn f^. ― This is interchanj^-eably used with the pveceding. As :i final 
particle it adds force to what is said. 

Pat, ,m 不然 Not so. Mf; pit, 4n 未必然 It is yot nnceriaiii. 

'Sho (tong' ,ln 所當 ^ As it ought to be. 

Ts/r ; I'll jn 自 然"";^ Spontaneously and yet truly. 


GUAMMAII 01' ','!!!': ClUNCSI.: LaNGU \(1K. 


矣, 爾' 'i 耳, ,1' 兒 and <i j/lj are used in a similar souse as 
the [n-ccediuy ; but uxpros^s the ineiiaing loss I'ui cibly than Jii. 

Coinbbiatiom of Expletioei^, or Enphanic Varllclts. 
Tl"' upper sentence is in tlie li";r;"'v style, the lower in the 丄)" "ti CuUo- 
<|ni:il, the sense beiu^ iIim isainc in ho\\\, 

-tll^lMok, Si (k、v;" (cl" meaj.^ ; y" (f,'i 莫 非歸之 命也夫 

; Y:'i (f'l'i ( (T" haP ineno-^ 'ohiii-ton-^ Ici? lok, 部 命整定 
ft is decreed by fate. 

也 哉 |VNs' 、! ii' ,p'uu ,kvv-t (j(、 (ts。i 吾豈飽 III 也哉 ^ 

'Yd (tsoi I'Ng; %' ha? ,u ,15 (kw ;、 (k6m young^ ,tu6 我 豈 蹬 

橄慊 I 禅 ' 
Am 1 only a i^'onvd ? or : Do yon compare me only to n p'oiml ? 
也 (M f :K,i' cvnn oiling' cts'eung- mfii' " lap; 'yii ,u Jt^^ jg T/lJ 

; j 古也與 . , 一、 

向面 埋墙企 住瞰頓 . 

As stupid us to stand your face close to the wall (i e. you know 
iiothino' and can see nothing"). 

也已 r 可 i| 仁一 S;^ 也 3 

'Ya ; i LTsau^ haP ; wai ,yan k (? fat, 'tsz la' 球係 幕 5 仁 (' 旣法子 
Then it may be called a means of" practicinj^' virtue. 

其亦 應享此 福也耶 

'Yd jel^Pun 'tang-4i6un;r ko' ti^ fuk) fau^ Jo 4^ fl\J M fji f& 
He oug"ht also tc» enjoy this happiness. 

^ 哉 f Sliiii- cChi wok, pu^ sun' (tsoi 善之 15 報信 矣哉— ^ 

4 (tsoi UWiii sbin^ ts;m)(li6 (kwo sliaf; hai^ hV ^ 善京) JlStt' 圾寶係 @ 
PiMCtive virtue and you will re ip thfi good fruit of it. 

已 矣 I Pat, yang' ts:.k; yik; H H 不! 41 则亦已 奢 

; I H U'M (simi ; ni, i tsW pa' 1:V 滅你, 你就" ^啦 

If he will not e;n|iloy ymi, then you must drop the lualter. 

已乎 pj ,i H ,u 如 lijf 而 已乎 , , 

瞰 樣子就 fl 囉 

If so, thon there is no otlior way lett {i.e. th*ire is only one way 
to give linppiness to the peopl"). 

乎哉 J"(K 歸" tsz (to … 君子 多乎哉 ^ ^ 

S 子 以个: ixft 
•^et 够哮 . 

Vv'ljy .sliouM the sup;n'ior m m troaIiI»> Liiii:,dt :il>out so many ? 



M 乎 f ;K'i ;' m 'hi ,k"i ;' in ,u 其笔豈 其然乎 

Jn .u LFI:r? (chan cliing) 《糸 冥正係 
So ! But is it so with him ! 

然 矣 f 'ti .'nj? ,md kan' M H 禹吾無 閬 然 矣 

Jn 'i LTfti^ '\j ko) jan ; m6 t;in^ ke' lok, 大禹个 入力彈 " 旣" & 

The oT3at ^ii is not a man deficient in virtue (no ci-evice found in him). 

M # f Jn yik, pit, Xnn ,k"i si"; ; i ; i '然赤 必求其 是而、 已 ^ 

Jn vik> \ Yik, iiV .k'au ; k,i cbeuk, 'k5m tsau- 'hai lok, 亦要求 其着 

瞰就 P 係咯 " 

It sf) ; tlien let him also seek for that ^diicb is rig'ht and nothing' else. 

然 而 1" 然而 不勝者 

Jn ,i 1 Flai^ ,clu, 'yau ,yino- tak, ke' i^,^^^\^^MW^% 
Indeed ; but there are some which connor be overcome. 

M 且 f Jn (ch,6 pat, (lio 然 且不可 

Jn 'ch'e t Sh^unj.-^ ^ch'e ,6 ; m 'ho a' ]%且 都 唔好呀 
Still it is not proper. 

辨 則 J jn tsak, ,fu 'tsz k<? shing' 4 然則 夫子旣 聖矣乎 

Jn tsak, (Hai' ^kom tsoir (ffi (tsz hai- sliing) ;vaii (lo kvva^ i^ilfjL)!® 

就夫子 係聖人 Sl^ " 

Then Confucius was a sag-e^ wns he not ? 
若 Mj.'Moyeuk, Sung> jan > 無 若宋人 j??^ 、, 、 
Yeuk^/ui [ ^Mai ko) Mi6 ^ts'z Snng^ cyan ^kum yeuiig-^ 'tsz n 米 个好似 

宋人嗷 樣子呀 

Not lilce the 8un>>' ])eo])le (who pulled up the i-ice, to inrike it louk as 
Ihvs'p ns other pec pies) . 

庶乎 jTsak)sliiiVi ,Vi'pat, ,ch'A H 則寧 雙-寧 不差矣 , 
SljiV I 'Kom ^nisliii' ,ld -luo mat, ts'o' lok, 瞰 呢庶幾 fl^ 錯 n 备 
If SO, then lie is almost witliout fault. 

惡乎 fjCwan ^tsz yik, ^yau (i) ,u 君子 亦有, 惡 乎' 

l> ,u I (Kwmi ^tsz ^yau (tsang, ,yan k6) 'in!) yi 君子有 1 曾人" 「究 fj 呢 
Does then the superior inaa oLsu dislike (ur hutc) peojjlo t 

鳴呼 [<U ,fu hot, ,kwai 嗚 呼畢歸 

(l) (m [,Hai ; ho pat, ,fan hiP (kwai (ni 。!! 何不翻 去歸呢 
Oh ! but why did he not", return ? 

乎 ^ fYik, ; k'mi ,V\ (sam (dii ; sMng ,in ,n H 亦 求其』 d 、之 誠焉乎 
, '/ 1 Yik, iiV ,sam ,shin- 'ko.n clio' '^'{^'^■^WM&J^ [if 
►ShouM seok to iiiaku his hear'i ;-inccrc. 

Chammah of tuu CuiMisK Lanomaok 


"ZT ^ I Put, Hgoi; jjan ^wan yik, ,^\^\n 'i ^ 夕 卜人云 亦云耳 

AVau q [ Pat^ kwo^ ,yan w.? ^ ynu^ u':? clie^ t 過人 f j| 急 Ml^ 
一 i eopie sny so and I icpeat it. 

:zr SI (Pole. ,u ,wan 、? 霄乎云 R| 
; i ( Pat kwo- isuiMiino. tP clii ^^ifA 
His crime is bnt trifling, 

SI 耳{>' tsim; X\ t (? An 4 斯盡其 道焉耳 

道!' (1^1; 睹 
1 his is to do one's duty. 

MM f'Ch'e :ii ,sz 。- an ^che JLiPftjf 人者 

H'h,6 ; fi t Yau; 'h6 Hs'z <ko W ;. yan 'ko.n ke' 叉好 似个 储 人! 旣 
Just like this (or tlint) imm, 

何 in fjio ,u ,k'i 'yn 何 ^口 其知也 

"i。 Ai\k,/ iP hni' n】at) k"" shik, ^ni 舞 也係仏 ^據 
What manner ot" knowledge is it then? 

食 n 何 f 力 ,ho <sz 4io wai* yeung^ H 女口何 可 謂養矣 

How then can yuix call this atteiidino- oii yotii' ['a rents / 
何 哉 (JI。 (ts。i H ,sz wnP tut, 'ch6 何哉爾 fjf 謂 ^ 者 
<lIo ,t.soi I^Pln veuno- hai^ hn kii? ts6^ tat, ke' (iii ^樣 係 f 尔 ^^斗 傲 

逹 呢 ' 

Ilow then do you call this T:'it, ! 

^ ^ f FiV hnb ,k'I shun; 4 ,u 3^ 毋二 矣 手 

,n 1 FiV 'nici ^kom tsau^ (o。 lok, :k) 义^^瞰就安樂!羅 
The |)arents will thus enjoy happiness. 

矣夫 C.Mii'i ,i pat, sau) 'clie yan " ,tu 苗而不 秀者 有矣夫 

a (fi'i (.Wo ,miu ;, m (hui ,fd ,t6 ; yau k<V lok, 宋 問花 都有 


There are always some sprouts winch do not fiower. 
云 ^ j Hi lit, 'yan ,c\n ,\van ,u 豈曰友 之云手 ^ 一 

豈但與 佢相交 
瞰話哼 . . 

J)i(l he say that lie only kopt intercourse wi tli his friend ? 
者也 (t'in ; man ,chi' (siii kok, 'die 予天民 《先 覺者也 
^Ciio 'jA^Ngo liai^ ,t'In ,slian- sin 'liiu t<Y =li kc- ; V 我係 天生先 

道理 n 旣呀 I am born with knowliHlge^ hence must first kuovv it. 


GhA mm ah of T H E CaiNKSli LA-S'GUAf=!E. 


也 者 f H;'iu) tai^ (di6 孝 rf》 也者 A 乂、、 
^Vu'clielclXano. (hii'i tak) h:'iu) t"i' 1;") .rue 能曉 得孝弟 " 统 3、 拳 
Does' he understand filial :u:(,i fraternal duties '? 

者 乎 J:i fong) <u (ts'an cliek, (<.'hi \U ax 而》兄於親^:^^^;乎 

何况 周時親 a 但嘅 
How much more, siu'ai hi' i。 always near Liiu, 

耶 Osiiai ii tnk, ta' ;' t .nan- ^clK ung- ch? ,ye f$ 非 f 息化 

(cht 巧 〈ij 能長 治者薄 

I' / iVl hai^ ^lio ,\ an talc, koiu ' t7ii〕 sp'ing- ke' (me PafeMj S hf 

太平姆 .. 1 H ,,,1 

And those officers should not be g'ood who can establish siicli 
o-reat pence ? 

者 耶 P'lVz ,{1 kau' fa^ (dii 'slu. k,"i、 'cl.e ,ye 此 非教化 之所及 
'CLe cje J 者耶 一 ju 

[ Ko) 11= ; m LaP kaii' f""' tak, ,Ioi k<? ,m6 的 P§ 係教 言川 

A.nd this sliouid not, have l"'i'n obtained by the rnfonnii)"' doctrint; . 
哉 (J ,liino- ; wai cvan P 'cl.e (tsoi 而輕爲 仁義? :哉 
'Che tsoi i ; H。 ""u t。r pok, t.ik, (sliU o'an ,ni 何 以灰待 f| 讀書 

(人呢 . . , 

How dare yon in I'Pturn ti-eat literai'y men with disrespect ! 

然 哉 「U 4u yenk, sh? (sm cluuing^ ,fu (ts,)i 豈若 是小丈 
(tsoi:i 夫然哉 ^ , 

我豈 同个她 

Ltl 度 量人嗎 . 

ITow dave vou compnvp ine to tluit mean iellow - 

惡乎 力入 A 1 乎宜乎 、 

51 ,u l(Tim yeuno;^ Hsz clii) ch.'uk ,tii fj^ 檨子 至着呢 
TIow shall \vf! tlien act to uiiiko tilings piujier ? 

巳矣乎 j' 'T.z ut, H 4 、子 曰已 矣乎 _^ ^ 

rionfnc'ius said : All lirt!"> is lot ! 

巳矣夫 i /Ng " 4 ,fu 唔 已 实 夬 j 
(行於 ttW 又 P 各 . . 

J r is all ovci (my ducuine " ill nut if^lurm the }vni hi) 



^?^已矣 j\K"ng'4 cliing-' ,nnm niin' J 'i H 身弓已 正南而 ! —AT 已矣 
J ;|' n (L:i|>, chiin .in tso^ tin' Jai 'koio yeun;^' clii 立 ffi;— 然坐 

殿 1黎 瞰樣 " 

He only sat on the throne and the whole emi'im was govern- 
ed well. 

而已也 [.Fi tsz' shmg (】" a " ; y" 多^ Q 成已 而已也 

J ; i lyA U'M Ik'P (ki' 'kom tsm'; ' io a' 卩 係 成 L^i 嚇允 l|| 呀 

The possessor of sincerity does not stop tiu^ ])eif{ictiou of 

也與哉 r.'Ng ; hang ; yd ,u ,tsoi 吾行 也與哉 ~ 」 

'Y;'i;n(tsoilj%o Jiang- hiV 'kom tsm' ,uu'' 我 行去顿 就 P{ 化 1 军 
If I depart, will it then l)e all well ? 

何以哉 (Tsak, ; h。 ; 1' ,tsoi 則 何以哉 

Jio ; J' (tsoi i'Ni ; Hi ]iiat, 'pun Hing hiV tso' (m' 你滅 ■U 4 《領去 tit 呢 
What have you to take with y'>u ? 

庶 乎哉 ; t'oi shiV ; u ,tsoi 其^ 庶乎律 

He coiisi.lars him in evrr.v r!'iii>e。f a <>oor] man. 
^|爾乎_^^1仏1、、0'&:1/11;1《1'1汝得人焉爾乎 ^ 
(ill -1 ,u I'm tnk, kv)' 'ho jan ^seimg ":i ;, m ; ts':i"g ,ni f 尔 f 导 ^固 好人 
相 與唔曾 Pjg: 

Are there any virtuous men there (witli whom you can hold intdcoiirso?) 
爾矣! "'W (sam ; in H H 盡 .'\:1、 焉爾角 

' 我 都好盡 旣" II 

With all niy heart (I ex'?vl myself to the ntiaost). 
也 已矣 jVK'i :h。 waP Chi; talc, "'丄 'i : 其可 謂 至德也 已 矣 
; H l/K'iisiiii'cl""hr)takhlm"gki?IiA)f 巨 莫 至^ 德行 Uft 

He consi^lers the pr action of superior virtue the only thing- 

worth spenking- of. 
焉 而已矣 (,Smi;k'i,"mn— /i M' W f# 其身焉 而已矣 
j'n /i ; i I'Th ; U tsz; =kl by (s;ur 'liai lok, fj' ^£ jlj 已 jQ 

身 就喺咯 

Cultivate personal virtue :uul Udthino- else. 

已乎已 乎 ( .KM .nano- 4 .u Ji 其 能 已乎 S 手 
How ihi'c YOii always ^ay, Do^^ist ! Desist I 


Grammar of the Chinksk 了 MivorAOR. 

Ih'pli'tiues in Can fan CoUoqvial. 

―. -, I _ ^「; I ;i ; i ;i rkam (chi ; ts'ung' clung' 'cbe ; t'oi ; i 已 而已而 

pffiELiWij 今 之從政 者殆而 

L 觀而家 哋官唔 好傲概 « 

Stop ! Stop ! lor peril awaits those who engage in politics. 
cChi ,11 ^che ^ya " ,in ,tsoi 之乎 老也丄 矣焉哉 
Ts'at, t^i? ; 1 蘭 g, (fan shl^ sau' jts'oi 七 宇能分 是秀才 

If you know well how to use the words from ^Chi to ^Tsoi, 
Yon are a g'l'adimte, yea a San ^ts'oi. 

Tho followino' expletives are those in common nse in Pimti Colloquial. 
A th(>roTii;*li kiio\v]e(lj>'fi oi them is as necessary for intellip*>l)le conversa- 
tion ns th(3 Tones juid Aspirates ; for tbey supply the place of the ex- 
pression of our emotions, hy which either a wish, a ooniMand ov a ques- 
tion is imi)lit'd according' to the moduliition of our voice. Most foreig- 
ners learning' Chinese have hitherto poicl too little attention to this 
jpct. The oouseqnence has been, that niaiiV? after havino' studied for 
ei.<^lit or ten years, discovered too late, that they were not understood, 
whilst others, with less etlucation anrl tolent, am! anion them several 
Indifts, have acquired so tlioronu-h a knowledge of the spoken lan«iia<>'e as 
to be able to converse in it with an ease, almost aj)proacbing- to that of 
their mother tong'ue. 

0/' Interrogation. 
+ ^X— Mat, ^ye (ft -^Mf^S What ? 

丄) 5^. JNi qcn ^ngo Mio tak, Mm ; V 你估 f| 好 得閒呀 
Do you think I have mvxh ]ei^u le !! 

Ch 睹. JK,ti ^chi ^karn ke^ ch«? 口敢口 &P 者 Has he orilj thnt ? 

'Md R.^.— Chan ching) hai^ lok, ^ma 眞正係 P 各 R 尋 Is it so indeed 飞 

(M6 If.— ^Kom wa^ ;, m hai^ ,me 敏話 唔係 Did he say so or " ? 

Mat) -ni -yau ^lio ke^ ( ma ^你 有好呶 
Have you anything- nice there ? 

.Ni 呢.— Mat) ^ng-o ^t'ai '-Ini ,ni ^^1^§俾我歸吓呢 Why 

do yon not. let me have a look fit it ? 
,Me n^._£jS'i ,chi to' ,me 你唔矢 1^ 到口羊 Do yon not know it ? 
(0 R^.—Mnt, mnn'- tnk, knm> cb'uf. ,k^'i A Hi} 徇 pjl' 出 

奇 H 亞呵 Why (lo YOU )"»u( so sti-nr)ge a question ? 
P") Fon- mat, 76 p;V 慌也野 WW, have you To fear ? 

Oj Command. 

LjV BfiL.-KiiV 4il tsnn^ hV liii^ hV J^^'feWC ^if^fil If he call, tlien 
you must be oft'. 



E.vpletives in Canton Colloquial. Interjections. 

La' oil.— 416 fai' hu' 1:V 好快, 地去錄 Be very quick ! 

M |1 刺.一 Cliik, hi? (bi 直去啦 Go strai-lit on I 

Le l^jj.— Tsik, lidk) hii' le' g 口 力 J 去 #!| Go instantly ! 

Of Affirmation and Response. 
Ch6) 睹. Tsau' hai' 'k6m wa^ che' 就係 I® 話睹 Then speak in that 
Clu (T(、) hai' (k6m (chi 都係顿 Matters stand thus. [war. 

<Ch'i Pat, kW hai^ 'kom <cM 才過 都係顿 Not differnnt 

(Lo ; K,ii to' ,lo 佢至 變 He has arrived. [from that. 

,Le #J. tClianchi)haia(16 眞 至係剛 It is so indeed. 
,Le M. Mat, > hai^ (16 -^Pg-f^Pfl Why should it not be so ? 
fLopo'? 羅噃. 'Ng'ohii)>r>o) 我去! ^噃 I do g-o. 
Lok,Pg^ ; Aid tsV lok) 錯 Pg" So it is, , iA'k 

Of doubt. 

Kwa' bll^. P,y ;, m hai' kwi? 怕唔係 I doubt it. 

A little careful attention paid to this subject will soon help the student 

to acq n ire a proper knowledge of the .application of tkese iiopoitant 


1. Of Sorrow. 

哀 哀夂毋 

Oh ! Ah ! or Alns. my parents ! 

(Oi ,tsoi 京哉 Alas! How sad! 'Ho sik, 可惜 What a pity ! 

,Ai ja 挟 fJtS Ah me ! 乂 i r'.ms') 寧他痛 Oh, how painful ! 

(ii ja;ho,ts'ai .leung 挟 。也好 凄凉 Oh I what misery ! what suf- 
fering's! " 

(0 ,a (ho sik) '\m sik, 阿呀可 1 昔可 1 昔 Oh, bow lamentable 1 how la- 
mentable ! 

,U (m 鳴呼 Oh ! how sad ! 

+ + 2. Of Jo;,. 

(Ui (hi 嗜 P 壽 Joy ( A Trmtlier ])liiyirig- with her infant). 

,"Niln tak, .nan tak, 難 f^-'W-M Fortiinsitp ! Fortunate ! 

3. Of Acchinuitioii. 

J ,u 猗 堵 : (i ,tse 猜嗟 Biavo! . 

Miu、tsoi 妙哉 Well done! AdiuimM"! Excellent! dcnr! 
' ' 4. (If Adni'iraf'ion, 

Mole, kwui', mokj l;\v:'ii' 莫中圣 Jl^'j 圣 No wonder ! No womler ! 

Grammar of tiik Chinese Lanouaoe. 

TAi」k,i, t:ii、k'i 大 奇大奇 Wonderful! Woudevful! (Oi /i 口垂呀 do. 
Aha! AWsoi 悠哉 How exquisite! ,Yau ^tsoi do, 
5. Of Anger and Ridicule. 
(Hi 5^ Pogh! Fool! (ts6(chi 嗟 tT 豸 Pshaw! 

6. Of Contempt. 
Fong -, p'i), foTig.' p'i' 放展放 B fie! fie! 
,Hi, ^xi n^q^ or (Hi PgP§ Fie! Fie! 
J (Jft Shame! 

Of Threatening and Warning. 

,去罷 Begone ! 二 Tsa" piV ; J 罷 do. 

cL5 kP Jo kr 牢言已 牢言已 Do not forget ! Do not forget ! 

8. Of Imitation. 

嗜嗜 Imitntion of lanolitcr. 

tip; tap, t;'ip; ^•J^ft'^rS^IH Tlie noise of i-filn falling on li.ird snb- 

^"Mh 0^ Tlie voice of b ihies when orvi'ig (cnlled ,n\f ^sliinu'.) 「st'ui("<'s. 

Tliere are many more Interjections nwt with in l)()oks ; but as tljey lue 
easily recognised, thej do nut r(!i|uire to be noticed here. 


Preface, page I to IV 

Affinity and Difference of Races^ " V 

Different Dialects in Chiiiu^ " VI 

卜 uiiilmity of (Jhinese, Japanese and American 

Indian Dialects, ,, VII to IX 

Origin ami Character of the Written Lan- 
guage, IX to XII 

Relatives, … " XII to XV 

The Spoken Language. Verbs with certain 

terminations &c., ,, XV to XXXV 

Or— 勿, " XXXV & XXXVII 

Difference of Intonation. page 1 

Aspirates, " 3 

Vo\ve4 SounfiS, ,, 3 

Dialectical Dilference, • " 4 

( 'mui)oun(ls, ,, '广) 

Classifiers, ♦ ,, *> to 

Chinese Designation of the Parts of Speech, " in & 

Articles, ,, 17 & 

TSoun, Gender, Number nu d Cases, " 18 to 

Adjectives, Positive, Comparative and Superlative, ,, 24 to 

Pronouns and their Substitutos, " to 

Numerals, " 47 to 

Yerbs, (; to 

Adverbs " ^5 to 

PrepositionSj ,, 8" to 

Conjunctions^ " 92 to 

Expletives, ,, 100 to 

Interjections, " 】08 to 

o 7 8 4 o 7 o 5 6 20-80 



P;ig'e V line 9 from beluw I'or inti-(*di-()(luce;I read iutro ! 

" l eiiiDve the ( . ) iifter I) ( '; 
,, t'ur ; ibsiirdeil read abs-orbed. 










8 . 






add water, 

after Eelalive IS'' 
2 from above i'or idea's read ideas. 
1 " " for (k'ai " ^ki'ii. 

" for fChau " (ch,au. 
,, for toi ,, ct'oi. 
below for pemie 
,, add a ( ― 
" lor clji'ii read .Cuiiu 
above for iiniiielli^ihle read unintclli 
below put qf before stcjckiug's. 

above and elsewhere for 《iig'a,n read 
" for (kwan read ^kwau. 

5 . 

1:3 , 
8 ' 

11 ' 


7 ' 

2 . 



4 & 5 


liter fl 



for Jia 

for fat) 
for hatches 
for jWai 
for jki'a 
for famale 





inclose very good in a ( ). 
for Htim^ pung- Iiuig^ ve:ul llaui" i)i'ing" lAng- 
for 116 read 

and elsewhere for oP % 




4 from above ior t,;'ti; 

,, t"AP. 


13 ,, ,, 

for gllani 

賤 icail tbW. 

2 & 8 and elsewhere for ^ts'fn 

8 from above for tak, read 


1] ,, ,, 

for yeuk^ " 


87 - 

14 ,, " 

for j~>o " 


4 " ,, 

for imi) " 



4 ,, ,, 

for kin) " 



18 ,, ,, 

for ,kun " 



for fuii^ " 

; fi'in. 


f.>r !'( scnrsc read nisonive. 


11 „ ,, 

f.M- benaty 

,, beauty. 


W& 17 " ,, 

for tuk, 獨 

,, tuk'. 


11 ,, ,, 

for f(Tli:ui 

„ 'Cirmi. 


4 " ,, 

,, (kw'ai. 

15 ,, ,, 

fnv (〕hi) 

,, Chi). 


2 " bt'loN 

V for U) 

line 12 from above for ^NAi read -Nui. 

14 ,, " for ku'o) " 'kwo, 

1 、fe 8 ,, ,, remove the ( • ) aftei- Optative and Mood. 

, ,, " for clun ,, luir. 

, 1 ,, ,, for liin) ,, liin^ 

, 1 & 2 below for tsni^ " ts:n-. 

, 12 from be](^w for tnk^ " tnk,. 

, 2 ,, above for k,ii) ,, -k'U. 

, 10 ,, " for 'md " cnio 

, n ,, . " fo. 信 ,, 陰 

, 3 " ,, tor ncquaduct rerul aqna*luct. 

, 1 i " ,, for kal(〕 " l"'ik). 

, 1" " " for ,Ni ,, ,Ni. 

, 9 " " fur mai^ " mui-. 

s 1 I- 3 5 


Los Angeles 

This book is DUE on the last date stamped below. 

"tv" 依 


R E C E i V 


E D 


MAY -二 





JAN 28 195/ 

_flCJ 161970 


|L ,, 


MAY 17 1971 • P 
- ■ k 

n 1377: 

鳥赠 7. 

/瞻 22 1378 i 
%Ci4 峻 


K ^^1,"0、各^^^0,11)霍 


Form L9-75m-7/61 (C1437b4)444 

7 19^- MAY 1 ' 1984